Presentation on theme: "Group 6 by: Whitley, Andrew, Savannah, Casey, McKenzie, and Goretty."— Presentation transcript:
Group 6 by: Whitley, Andrew, Savannah, Casey, McKenzie, and Goretty
What will you be learning? The economic, social, and cultural differences of the north and south during the antebellum period. The major events and issues that promoted sectional conflicts and strained national cohesiveness in the antebellum period.
Describe the economics of the North and the South. The importance of “king cotton” in the South. After Eli Whitney's cotton gin was invented in 1793, cotton production grew rapidly. The cotton kingdom developed into agricultural factories. Quick profits drew farmers to the south. Planters bought more slaves and more land. The northern shippers had a large part in profits. They loaded cotton onto ships and to England. Prosperity of North and South depended on southern slaves. Cotton counted for half the of the value of us exports after 1840. The south produced more than half of the entire worlds supply of cotton. Britain depended on the US for cotton. The phrase “cotton was king”, meant that cotton ruled the people, as it was their source of income. It was considered by the southern leaders as a powerful monarch.
How do economic differences effect regional views on issues like tariff? Tariff particularly favored the north and their manufacturing plants; by imposing a protective tariff on imports from foreign regions, the northern manufactures would benefit. The south felt as though this was unfair because the tariffs did not help the south. The north and south disagree on the common good of the tariffs.
What is a tariff? What are the tariffs of 1824, 1828,and 1832? The tariffs protected American industry against competition from European manufactured goods. Also, they drove up taxes for all Americans. The Tariff of 1824 (~35%)- This tariff was increased, but wool manufacturers wanted more protection against foreign manufactures. Ardent Jacksonites played a cynical role in the political game. They promoted a high tariff bill. Southerners didn’t like the tariffs because they were heavy consumers of manufactured goods. The Tariff of 1828 (60+%)- “Black Tariff” or “Tariff of Abominations” Southerners believed the tariff discriminated against them. Southern farmers could sell goods without tariffs, but had to buy goods from markets with high tariffs. The Tariff of 1832 (back ~38%)- “Nullies” Tried to muster the necessary 2/3 votes for nullification in the South Carolina legislature.
How did John Calhoun and the south reacts to the tariffs? What was the nullification crisis and how was it put down by President Jackson? John Calhoun called the 1828 tariff, a tariff of abomination because he blamed it for economic problems in the south. The southern economy depended on cotton exports and the tariffs on manufactured goods reduced British exports. So this made the British buy less cotton. The south was forced to buy the more manufactured goods from the north, so the south didn’t like it because they saw it as the north getting rich. To try to free the south from the tariff, Calhoun theory was that the us constitution was based on a compact among the sovereign states. If the constitution had been established by 13 sovereign states, then states must still be sovereign and each would have the right to determine weather acts of congress were constitutional.
Continued… If the state found an act to be unconstitutional, the state could declare the offending law nullified, or inoperative, within borders. South Carolinians nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and they threatened to secede, or withdraw from the union if custom officials tried to collect duties. Congress passed a Compromise Tariff in 1833, gradually lowering the tariff rate back to 1816 levels. South Carolina dropped its nullification of the tariffs. But president Jackson urged congress to pass the Force Bill to allow the federal government to use the military if state authorities resisted paying proper duties. …South Carolina then nullified the Force Bill
Describe US foreign trade by 1860. after the cotton gin was invented everyone wanted to move south to grow cotton because of quick profit. Northern shippers had a large part in that profit because the loaded cotton onto ships and shipped to England. England became dependant on America because the amount of cotton the us was selling them. 1850s us trade with china declined. Domestic manufacturers produced and rapidly industrializing northern states were replacing imports. Cotton replaced nankeen, American pottery factories replaced Chinese designs on porcelain and coffee imported from central and south America was replacing Chinese tea. Civil war consumed resources of American economy. European ship yards surged ahead in manufacture of steamed powered vessels – quickly came to dominate ocean trade routes.
how did the following deal with slavery? The Missouri compromise- northerners and southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted to the union as a free state or a slave state. Congress passed a series of agreements in 1820-1821. Agreements = Maine was admitted as a free state. Missouri admitted as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana purchase was split into two parts. South of Missouri’s southern border (36’30 line), slavery was legal. North, (except Missouri) slavery was banned. The Compromise of 1850- The North gets CA admitted as a free state; South gets strengthened Fugitive Slave Act Threats of southern secession became more frequent. Henry clay worked to shape a compromise that both the north and south could accept. Kansas-Nebraska Act- Allowed for popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska Territories to vote on whether or not to have slaves
“bleeding Kansas” The neighboring states wanted Kansas to be a slave state. People then came from other states like Missouri to Kansas and voted illegally. They wanted Kansas to be a slave state because if they were a free state then all the slaves surrounding Kansas would leave and go to Kansas so they could be free. People in Kansas were furious because people from other states came over and voted illegally. This caused bloody violence to erupt in Kansas.
Dred Scotty vs. Sanford. Dred Scott was taken by his owner to a free tate and then back to a slave state. Scott believed he should be free because he was in a free state. The court ruled that being in a free state did not make a slave free. The 5 th amendment protected property including slaves. Southerners felt that the courts decision not only implied that slavery would expand, but guaranteed it. ***Congress could do NOTHING about slavery in the territories