Presentation on theme: "It’s Causes and Effects. What is the New York Stock Exchange? World’s largest market place for securities Currently membership limited to 1,366 members."— Presentation transcript:
It’s Causes and Effects
What is the New York Stock Exchange? World’s largest market place for securities Currently membership limited to 1,366 members. Seat obtained by purchasing from existing member
The Great Bull Market Bull Market = A market where prices are rising and expected to continue to rise Huge bubble with high speculations People made many investments to make big money
Bull Market sparked by? Mass Production Rise in national income from 33,200 million to 79,200 million from 1914 to 1925 Expectation for great future and un- boundless optimism for the market
What Sparked This Growth in Industry? The Electrification of the production process –This expanded the ability to transform raw materials into finished products –Ex. Ford Motors
HOWEVER?????? Wages did not raise even though the production did and prices of products failed to decrease. There was not an excess demand for labor –Leaving unemployment rate steady
Stock Exchange Average Rise in Share Prices
Political Promises Spark Market Speculation Herbert Hoover was the most promising candidate for president because of his ideas which promised increased economic growth in America.
Hoover’s Plan Proposed a Tariff bill which Senator Smoot presented called the Hawley-Smoot Tariff –Promised increased taxes on imports –Planned to allow more productivity for US manufacturers –Help ease unemployment
Investors marvel at This Proposal Investors believed profits from stocks would increase if the tariff bill was passed Sparked intense speculation Dow Jones Industrial Average increased by almost 35% because expected election of Hoover and his bill
This Bubble was bound to Burst!
The Crash of 1929 “American economic disaster that precipitated the Great Depression which was approximately a 10 year economic slump affecting all the western industrialized countries.” –Encyclopedia Britannica
General Causes of the Crash Uncontrolled over-speculation in market People holding companies and investment trusts (which by nature creates debt) Bursting of Bull Market economic bubble in August 1929 Large bank loans could not be paid
Direct Cause of Crash of Stock Market After Hoovers election certain people began to doubt if the tariff bill would help the US Economy –Farmers, America’s trading partners, Democrats, and some Republican’s opposed the passage of new tariffs. –On October 21, 1929 Senate announces plans to limit tariff revisions –October 22, 1929 more limits set on tariff bill
Investors Realize Tariff Bill is DOOMED!!!!!!!!!!!!! PANIC! PANIC! PANIC!
Black Thursday On October 18, 1929 prices began to fall Panic stuck out on October 24 “BLACK THURSDAY” Record of 12,894,650 shares were traded
Black Thursday (Continued) Major banks and investment companies bought up great blocks of stocks to stop the panic but…. THERE ATTEMPTS FAILED!!!!!!!!!
Black Monday and Tuesday The Panic continued and 16,000,000 shares were traded Prices on the stock market collapsed completely!!
Hoover’s Plan to combat Crash Extracted promises from manufacturers to maintain production. Signed legislation providing generous additional funds to pubic works Hawley-Smoot Tariff 1930 (finally passed): to raise duties 50%
ALL THESE FAILED TO EASE CRISIS AND DEPRESSION FOLLOWED!!!!
Causes of Great Depression Agriculture had crashed in 1919 and was a continuing source of weakness. Banks over-extended Wages had not kept up with profits In 1920’s consumers were reaching limits of ability to borrow and spend
Cause’s of Depression (continued) Production was declining and unemployment increasing EVEN before the crash! Destroyed confidence in the economy Down sizing of industry causing unemployment
The Great Depression The stock prices in the next three years continued to fall By 1932 prices had dropped to only about 20% of there original value
Effects of Depression on Individual Thousands of individual investors ruined Loss of savings Poverty and panic Less spending and demand Unemployment Wages decrease
Decline in Production DOWNWARD SPIRAL - little output = less jobs - Manufacturing output fallen to 54% of its 1929 output % of work force unemployed Million jobless
Effects of Depression on Economy Stock prices drop Industry declines Value of assets decline 11,000 of 25,000 banks fail Because of tariffs international trade market decreases Causes a world wide depression
Hope Shattered In 1930 there is a slight rise in production and it seems depression might ease however: Spring 1931 the weakening of western European economy causes the major bank in Vienna to crash and Germany defaults on its war reparation payments
Hoover’s last Attempts (continued) Reconstruction Finance Corp- to lend funds to banks, railroads, etc Glass-Steagall Act- Gold to meet w/ foreign withdraws THESE AND OTHER ACTS FAILED TO PROMOTE RECOVERY!!!! The American People lose fail in Hoover.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Wins Presidency Political and revolutionary thinker Elected 1932 Introduced major changes in structure of economy New Deal
FDR’s New Deal Opposite of Laissez-Faire (completely free market Increased government regulation Massive public works projects for relief of poverty Aid for the unemployed and unfortunate
Some of FDR’s Programs Civilian Conservation Corp National Recovery Administration Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Securities and Exchange Commission
More Programs 1935 Wagner Act (authority of Federal government in industrial relations) National Labor Relations Board Social Security, unemployment compensation, disability insurance
What did we learn from the 1929 Crash? Market can be very unpredictable Investors must not get caught up in market bubble illusions Market forces alone may be unable to achieve recovery from economic slump Changes were needed in US economic structure
End to Depression Outbreak of World War II causes –US factories flooded with orders form armaments and munitions –Unemployment decreases and production increase –Depression ends completely by the time the US enters the war in 1941