Presentation on theme: "Government Distortions in International Trade Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:
Government Distortions in International Trade Chapter 6
So far we have covered… Causes and consequences of trade –Trade leads to redistribution of production in an economy –Also affects the returns paid to factors of productions.
Gains from Trade Static and Dynamic Gains –Static Gains Consumption gains Production gains –Dynamic Gains Technology transfer Leads to greater competition Helps in achieving economies of scale. Leads to higher income –Political gains
Tariffs It is a tax imposed by the government on imports and exports (US does not impose tariffs on exports) Tariffs are imposed: –To raise government revenue –To protect domestic producers Developed countries mostly impose tariffs to protect domestic producers. U.S. tariff revenue accounts for less than 2 percent of government revenue
Types of Tariffs For every product there are three possible tariffs –Ad valorem tariffs: The tax is calculated as a percentage of the value of the product. Most of the tariffs are ad valorem in nature. –Specific tariffs: The tax is calculated as a fixed amount of money per unit of goods.
Types of Tariffs For every product three are three possible tariffs –Compound Tariffs: It has both specific and ad valorem components Processed cherry products in the U.S. are protected by a compound tariff of 6.9 cents per kilogram plus 4.5 percent of the product price
Tariff rates General rates of duty: is the duty applied to goods from countries to whom United States has granted most favored nations (MFN) A county confers MFN status upon agreeing not to charge tariffs on that country’s goods that are not higher than those it imposes on the goods of any other country
Tariff rates Special rate of duty: is the duty applied to goods from certain countries with whom United States has negotiated special trade agreements –Caribbean Basin Initiative –North American Free Trade Agreement –United States-Israel Free Trade Agreement
Tariff rates A complete list of U.S. Tariff schedule is available online at: –http://www.usitc.gov/taffairs.htm
Economic Analysis of Tariffs Tools to be used to analyze economic effects of tariffs: –Consumer surplus –Producer surplus Lets take an example of one commodity, say, wheat
Market Demand price D Q o q1q1 P1P1 P2P2 q2 P X
Price, and Production under Autarky (no trade) for wheat PePe D S PiPi QeQe QiQi Wheat Exporting Country Wheat Importing Country
Gains from Free Trade for Wheat Importing Country PiPi QiQi PwPw SwSw DwDw a b c
Welfare Effects in the Import Market Change in Consumer welfare: a+b+c Change in Producer welfare: -a Net welfare change: b+c
Gains from Free Trade for Wheat Exporting Country PePe DWDW SWSW QeQe PWPW e f g
Welfare Effects in the Export Market Change in Consumer welfare: -(e+f) Change in Producer welfare: +(e+f+g) Net welfare change: g
The Effects of an Import Tariffs Lets impose a tariff of t dollars on imports PiPi QiQi PwPw DwDw P w +t Tariff a b c d e
Welfare Effects of a tariff imposed by a small country Change in Consumer welfare: Change in Producer welfare: Change in government revenue Net welfare change:
Deadweight Cost of the Tariff It is the cost to the society of imposing the tariff. It is also an amount that goes to no one. Dead weight cost of the tariff = ½*tariff*reduction in imports (for linear demand and supply curves)
The Deadweight Loss of an Import Tariffs PiPi QiQi PwPw DwDw P w +t a b c d e Production deadweight cost Consumer deadweight cost
So far…. We have analyzed the effects of tariff using some strict assumptions: –Regarding size of the country imposing tariff Suppose the country that imposes tariffs is a large country in the sense that it is significant importer or exporter of the product.
Illustration of a tariff for a large country P’ DADA P P FT P”P” QBQB QtQt SBSB DBDB Importing Country Q1Q1 Exporting Country SASA P’ P Q4Q4 Q 44 Q33Q33 Q11 Q 22 Q3Q3 Q2Q2 a bcd e t
Welfare cost of a tariff Change in consumer surplus –-a -b -c -d Change in producer surplus – +a Change on government revenue –+c +e Net welfare change –-b -d +e