2Election of 1824: 4 Candidates “Corrupt Bargain”John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson – Jackson wins popular vote – no clear winner, vote goes to House of RepsClay eliminated, but uses his influence as Speaker of the House to ensure Adams is electedHouse of Reps vote for AdamsClay appointed Sec. of State = “Corrupt Bargain”
3Tmwk Ch 13 Pg 261 What region did Jackson win in the Election of 1828? Which states were divided in the election of 1828?Pg 263 What new idea did John C. Calhoun have regarding the executive branch?
4Election of 1828 New Party of Democrats Jackson “Old Hickory” Stance: “people’s man”Wealthy frontier Aristocrat - Lived in TNStance:Distrusted banks and aristocratsAnti-Native AmericanAnti-TariffJackson defeats Adams1st Pres from West - TN2nd non-college educated pres.Power shifts from Eastern seaboard to the west
5Jackson Beliefs Small Govt, free market, pro States Rights Spoils System: rewarding political supporters with public office on a large scale.Men who made campaign contributions were appointed to high offices.“better to bring in new blood”“every man is as good as his neighbor”Spoils system cemented loyalty to a party over economic class or geographic region.
6Congress Passes Tariff of 1828 Benefited the NE and Middle Atlantic manufacturers.Southerners did little manufacturing; didn’t like tariff because they were consumers of manufactured goods.Called “Tariff of Abominations” = very high tariff. Southerners felt it was against them and states’ rights.John C. Calhoun wrote South Carolina Exposition - protesting against Tariff of 1828: Stated if tariff wasn’t repealed, S. Carolina would secede. (pro states’ rights)Question: Does a state have the right to reject a federal law?
7Nullification and New Tariffs S. Carolina tried to nullify Tariff of 1828 in their state legislature – unsuccessful.Congress responds: passes new Tariff of 1832 which reduced 1828 tariff; Southerners still unsatisfied.1832 S. Carolina: 2/3 majority voted to nullify the tariff and threatened to secede from Union.Jackson dispatched naval and military to area.Henry Clay pushed through the compromise Tariff of gradually reduce tariff by 10% over 8 yr period.Congress passed Force Bill: authorized Pres. to use army/navy to collect federal tariff duties.
8Tmwk Ch 134. Pg 266 Under the Indian Removal Act of 1830, what area were the Indians from and what area were they being forced to move to?
91830 Indian RemovalU.S. recognized tribes as separate nations and made treaties in order to acquire land – but U.S. often violated the treaties.U.S. believed Indians could assimilate into White society. Missionaries worked to Christianize the Indians.“Five Civilized Tribes”: Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles – recognized for their assimilation attempts.1828 Georgia Legislature declared Cherokee Tribal Council illegal, Cherokees appealed to Supreme CourtJackson: “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!”
11Trail of Tears1830 Indian Removal Act: forced Indians out of their lands to “Indian Territory” (Oklahoma)Trail of Tears: forced removal of 100,000 Indians -suffered disease, starvation, hardship.Several thousand diedIndians were supposed to be “permanently” free of White settlements in the new “Indian Territory”, but only lasted 15 years.Bureau of Indian Affairs established 1836 to administer relations with Indians.
13Tmwk5. Pg 269 What is the political cartoon depicting? Who is for and against the ______?6. Pg 270 Did Pres Jackson re-charter the bank?
14Bank War Bank of U.S.: controlled nation’s gold & silver. Pres of Bank of U.S. = Nicholas Biddle.1832 Bank War erupted: Henry Clay presented Bill to Congress to renew bank charter. (though charter wouldn’t expire until 1836).Congress passed re-charter bill for the bank, but Jackson vetoed it – thought the bank held too much power and was unconstitutional.Supreme Court had earlier declared the bank Constitutional in McCulloch v. Maryland.Who has more power? Executive, judicial, or legislative branch?
15Election of 1832: How was it different? Henry Clay runs against Jackson.For 1st time, a 3rd party ran: Anti-Masonic party which condemned secret societies.Calling of national nominating conventions to name candidates.Adoption of formal platforms, publicizing their positions on the issues.Clay had an advantage in campaign funds, but Jackson won: 219 to 49 electoral votesWhat does Jackson do with the Bank of the U.S.?
16Jackson Buries the Bank Bank Charter already denied - due to expire in 1836, but Jackson made sure bank was exterminated.1833 Removed federal deposits from Bank of U.S. and used up some of the deposits to pay for govt expenses.Surplus of federal funds were placed in state banks, called “pet banks.”“Wildcat” and “Pet banks” flooded the country with paper money.Jackson authorized Treasury to issue the Specie Circular Order– required public lands be purchased with gold/silver. This contributed to Panic of 1837.
17Depression-Panic of 1837Major cause: Rampant speculation based on shaky currency of “Wildcat banks”Failure of wheat crops – grain prices increased greatly.Hundreds of Am. banks collapsedFactories closed/unemployment1840: Independent Treasury Bill passed – established independent treasury that would be isolated from all banks. Govt surplus funds to be locked in vaults.Treasury Bill was repealed by Whigs the next year.
18Mexico won Independence - 1823 Texas: Mexico gave land grant to Stephen Austin. He brought 300 American families into TexasBy 1835, Texan American population = 35,000Friction between Mexicans and American over slavery, immigration, and local rights.Austin put in jail by General Santa Anna and wiped out local rights.1836: Americans declared Independence – Sam Houston, Commander in ChiefAmericans lost the Battle of Alamo - “Remember the Alamo!!” (Jim Bowie, Davey Crockett)Battle of San Jacinto April Santa Anna captured and forced to sign treaty after Battle of San Jacinto.Will Texas become a SLAVE or FREE state?
19Two-Party SystemResult of 1840 Election between Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison = Two Party SystemDemocratsLiberty of individual and against privilege of govt.For state’s rights & federal restraint in social and economic affairs.WhigsFavored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, prohibition of liquorTended to be more prosperous
20Legacy Less national govt involvement in economy (for now) Expanded power of Executive (nullification, Indian removal, bank)Empowered state govts - became more democraticFurther Western expansionEmergence of Western influence in DCRe-emergence of a two party system: Whigs and Democrats