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Section 1-Polling QuestionSection 1-Polling Question How do you think the president should be chosen? A.By the current system with an electoral college B.By the popular vote of the people C.By the Congress A.A B.B C.C
Chapter 11 The Jackson Era (1824-1845) Section 1 Jacksonian Democracy
Essential QuestionEssential Question H o w d i d p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s a n d e v e n t s s h a p e A n d r e w J a c k s o n ’ s p r e s i d e n c y ?
James Monroe Leaves Office From 1816 and 1824, the US had only one political party The Republicans James Monroe refused to run for a third term Four candidates from the party ran for president The candidates views different and they represented different regions
Candidates of 1824 The Party nominated William H. Crawford, a former congressmen from Georgia The other three were favorite sons (Backed by their home states instead of a party) Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson came from Tennessee (West) and war hero Henry Clay from Kentucky (West) and Speaker of the House of Representatives John Quincy AdamsJohn Quincy Adams from Massachusetts (Northeast) and son of former son John Adams
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1Section 1 Who won the Republican Party nomination in the presidential election of 1824? A.William Crawford B.Andrew Jackson C.Henry Clay D.John Quincy Adams
The Election of 1824 Jackson received the largest number of popular votes majorityBut, no one received a majority of the electoral vote pluralityJackson won a plurality selectsAccording to the 12 th Amendment, when no candidate receives a majority of electoral voted, the House of Reps selects the president
The House Decides Henry Clay met with John Quincy Adams Clay agreed to use his influence as Speaker of the House to defeat Jackson In return, Clay hoped to gain popularity as secretary of state With Clay’s help, Adams was elected president Adams quickly named Clay secretary of state (traditionally a stepping stone to the presidency) Jackson’s followers accused the two men of making a “corrupt bargain” and stealing the election
The Adams Presidency Adams and Clay denied any wrongdoings The charge of “corrupt wrongdoing” cast a shadow over Adams presidency Adams had an ambitious program of legislation Also improving roads and waterways Adams wanted to have a national university Adams proposals horrified his opponents who wanted a more limited role for the federal government In the end, Congress granted money for improving rivers, harbors, and roads
The Republican Party By 1824, the Republican Party split Democratic-Republicans supported Jackson National Republicans supported Adams Jackson’s “Democrats” favored states’ rights and mistrusted strong central government Many Democrats were people from the frontier, immigrants, or workers in the big cities
The National Republicans Wanted a strong central government Supported federal measures like road building and the Bank of the United States They believed this would help the economy Many were merchants or farmers
Campaign of 1828 Both partied resorted to mudslinging (insults) Adams was accused of betraying the people The Democrats said the election was a contest “between an honest patriotism, and an unholy, selfish ambition, on the other.” The National Republicans fought back with a song embarrassing incidents of Jackson’s life John C. Calhoun, Adams’ Vice President, switched parties to run with Jackson Jackson won an overwhelming victory
“Old Hickory” Like many of his supporters, Jackson was born in a log cabin He was a war hero His troops called him “Old Hickory” because he was as tough as a hickory stick Many felt that Jackson’s rise from a log cabin to the White House demonstrated the American success story
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1Section 1 Who could vote in the presidential elections of the 1820s? A.Females B.African Americans C.White males D.Native Americans
New Voters President Jackson promised “equal protection and equal benefits” for all Americans At least for all white American men During his first term, a spirit of equality spread throughout American politics Many states loosened the restrictions for voting (Owning property) Democracy expanded as people who had not been allowed to vote became new voters participatedMore men participated in the political process Women could not vote. African Americans and Native Americans had few rights of any kind 22 of the 24 states changed their constitutions to allow the people to choose presidential electors
The Spoils System Democrats wanted more ordinary people in government jobs They felt that the federal government had become a bureaucracy (a system in which nonelected officials carry out laws) Jackson replaced workers with his supporters The fired employees protesting, saying Jackson was acting like a tyrant One Jackson supporter said: “To the victors belong the spoils” spoils systemThe practice of replacing government employees with the winner’s supporters is called the spoils system
Electoral Changes caucusJackson’s supporters abandoned the unpopular caucus (Candidates chosen by Congress) Nominating conventions replaced them Delegates from the states chose the party’s presidential candidate This allowed many people to participate in selecting candidates
The Tariff Debate tariffA high tariff on European manufactured goods pleased Northeastern factory owners By making European goods more expensive, more American made goods would be sold Southerners hated it because tariffs meant higher prices nullifyJohn C. Calhoun argued that a state had the right to nullify (cancel) a federal law if it was considered to be against state interests Daniel Webster (North) disagreed, claiming that nullification would destroy the Union
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1Section 1 How would Northeastern factory owners react to a high tariff? A.They would be upset and oppose high tariffs. B.They would decrease production of goods. C.They would be very pleased. D.They would consume more European products.
Nullification Jackson spoke to Calhoun- “Our federal Union… must be preserved” Calhoun responded- “The Union- next to our liberty, most dear” Calhoun meant that the Union must take second place to a state’s liberty to overrule the Constitution if its interests were threatened 1832- Congress lowered the tariff, but the protests from the South continued
South Carolina’s Response South Carolina passed the Nullification Act, declaring it would not pay the “illegal” tariffs of 1828 and 1832 South Carolina threatened to secede if the government interfered To ease the crisis, Jackson backed a bill that would gradually lower the tariff Jackson also had Congress pass the Force Bill, allowing him to use the military to enforce acts of Congress South Carolina accepted the new tariff, but nullified the Force Bill
Essential QuestionEssential Question H o w d i d p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s a n d e v e n t s s h a p e A n d r e w J a c k s o n ’ s p r e s i d e n c y ? –L i m i t i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t –S t a t e s ’ r i g h t s –B r o a d e n i n g d e m o c r a c y –S p o i l s s y s t e m –N u l l i f i c a t i o n c h a l l e n g e d h i s i d e a s How did political beliefs and events shape Andrew Jackson’s presidency? -Limiting the strength of the federal government -States’ rights -Broadening democracy -Spoils system -Nullification challenged his ideas
John C. Calhoun believed that states had a right to nullify acts of the federal government. A.True B.False
Presidential candidates who receive the backing of their home states rather than that of the national party are called A.home state candidates. B.national party candidates. C.favorite son candidates. D.state party candidates.
Andrew Jackson's supporters replaced caucuses with A.selection meetings. B.state conventions. C.delegate conventions. D.nominating conventions.
The only Americans allowed to vote in 1824 and 1828 were A.African Americans. B.white men. C.white women. D.all of the above.
What law allowed the president to use the United States military to enforce acts of Congress? A.Military Act B.Presidential Act C.Congressional Bill D.Force Bill
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