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The World Trade Organization: Evolution, Structure and Agreements Dr. Wybe Th. Douma TMC Asser Instituut The Hague, The Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "The World Trade Organization: Evolution, Structure and Agreements Dr. Wybe Th. Douma TMC Asser Instituut The Hague, The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World Trade Organization: Evolution, Structure and Agreements Dr. Wybe Th. Douma TMC Asser Instituut The Hague, The Netherlands

2 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 2 The WTO: Its evolution The ITO and GATT 1947 Filling the gap left by still born ITO De facto international trade organisation Success and failure Uruguay Round ( ): the longest round ever Punta del Este Declaration Proposals for a MTO (1990) Marrakesh Agreement (1994) WTO since Differences between GATT’47 and WTO

3 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 3 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Economic Globalisation and International Trade What is meant by economic globalisation? Gradual integration of national economies into a global borderless economy Influenced by (and their democratisation)  forces of technology  of finance  of information

4 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 4 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Why is it under critique? Reasons and reactions Globaphiles v.globaphobes Expansion of cross-border economic interaction: more trade, more welfare Erosion of local control, autonomy and identity WTO as vehicle of freer and open trade? Balancing of interests necessary Global economic governance

5 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 5 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Figures on trade (last 50 years) show changes in trade developments General increase of world trade Increase of share of services in relations to goods Raise of trade in Europe Decline in Latin-America, Africa and Asia 48 ldc account to only 0.5 percent of world trade China, India and Mexico major suppliers of cutting/- edge technologies and labour-intensive goods Increased trade with companies and foreign direct investment

6 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 6 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law International trade rules: reasons Restraining protectionism More security and predictability Governance in globalised economy

7 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 7 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Basic Rules and Principles of WTO Law WTO Agreement regulating institutional, decision- making and procedural rules Multilateral agreements GATT, GATS, TRIPS contain  Principle of non-discrimination  Principle of freer and fair trade  Rules on conflicts between trade liberalization and other societal values and interests  Special rules and differential treatment for developing countries

8 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 8 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Sources of WTO Law: see WTO Legislation Agreement establishing the WTO Multilateral agreement on trade in goods  GATT 1994  Agreement on Agriculture  Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitay Measures  Agreement on Textiles and Clothing GATS TRIPS Dispute Settlement Understanding

9 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 9 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Sources of WTO Law: see WTO Legislation Ministerial Decisions and Declarations: not enforcable through DS WTO dispute settlement reports Acts of WTO bodies: authoritative interpretaitons and waivers Customary international law General principles of law Other international agreements (WIPO agreements)

10 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 10 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Sources of WTO Law: conflicts and effect Relationship: II WTO Agreement Difference multilateral - plurilateral agreements Cases of conflict XVI:3 WTO Agreement Conflict between GATT’94 and other multilateral agreements on goods? Other multilateral agreement prevails Adopted panel and AB reports only binding on the parties but nonbinding precedent

11 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 11 Economic Globalisation and WTO Law Sources of WTO Law: conflicts and effect Customary international law: 3.2 DSU Especially in procedural law used General principles of law Other international agreements reference: 2 TRIPs Agreement WIPO ip agreements No reference: dispute whether evocable Subsequent practice, Art.31(3) (b) Vienna Convention

12 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 12 The WTO organisation: Mandate of the WTO Objectives (preamble WTO) Increase of standard of living Attainment of full employment Allowing optimal use of the world’s resources, objective sustainable development Protect and preserve environment Share of growth for developing and least developed countries Through reduction of trade barriers and elimination of discrimination

13 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 13 The WTO organisation: Mandate of the WTO Functions (III WTO) Facilitate implementation of WTO agreements Forum for negotiations: Ministerial Conferences Settlement of trade disputes Review trade policies (TPRM): periodic reviews Cooperate with IOs and NGOs: IOs, working arrangements (III:5, V WTO), ngos: V:2, guidelines Give technical assistance developing countries: bilateral or multilateral

14 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 14 WTO Membership Current membership Quasi-universal: Dec members States and autonomous customs territories (Hong Kong) European Communities and EU MS, IX, XI, XIV WTO Developing country Members (DCMs): ¾, ldc: designated as such by the UN Groupings and alliances: rta (ASEAN, NAFTA), Cairns group (agriculture), G-20 (China, India, Brazil, Egypt, Argentina, South Africa), Quad (EC, Japan, USA) Observers (Afghanistan, Laos), start accession n. within five years, ios

15 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 15 WTO Membership Membership obligations (XVI:4 WTO) Waivers (IX:3-4 WTO) Non-application (XIII WTO): when joining Accession Original membership (XI WTO) until 1997 Accession (XII WTO) Withdrawal and expulsion (XV WTO)

16 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 16 WTO Membership Accession: XII WTO: long and cumbersome Accept WTO Agreements and multilateral agreements Negotiating market access commitment and concessions Stages WTO working party on accession Tell us about yourself Work out with us individually what you have to offer (bilateral) Draft membership terms (protocol of accession and lists Decision phase Minsterial Conference or General Council decides by consensus/two-thirds majority of WTO members  Example China, 15 years of accession

17 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 17 WTO Institutional Structure: member-driven Ministerial Conference (IV:1 WTO) General Council, DSB, TPRB (IV:2-4 WTO) Specialized Councils (IV:5 WTO) Committees and working parties (IV:6 WTO) Quasi-judicial bodies (DSB) WTO Secretariat (VI WTO) Organs absent in the WTO

18 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 18 WTO Institutional Structure Ministerial Conferences Minister-level representatives Supreme decision-making functions Adopt authoritative interpretations of the WTO agreements Granting waivers Adopt amendments Decide accessions Appoint DG and staff regulations Meets at least once every two years

19 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 19 Ministerial Conferences and built-in agenda Commitment in the Uruguay Round, negotiations in agriculture, services Singapore 1996: new working groups (trade and investment, trade and competition policy) Geneva, 1998: Millennium Round 2000? Seattle, 1999: the road to debacle, working groups established agriculture

20 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 20 Ministerial Conferences and Doha Development Round Doha, 2001: Doha Development Round or Agenda (DDA) single undertaking approach (except DS and geographical indications ) deadline , then end of 2006 Cancun, 2003 Hong Kong, 2005 July 2006: negotiations suspended

21 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 21 Areas of concern Implementation-related issues and concerns Agriculture Services TRIPS and issues And public health And geographical indications And biodiversity Protection of traditional knowledge and folkore

22 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 22 WTO Institutional Structure General Council, DSB, TPRB (IV:2-4 WTO) Ambassador-level diplomats Meets once every two months Day-to-day management adopting annual budget, financial regulations Arrangements cooperations IOs and NGOs DSB (Dispute Settlement Body) and TPRB (Trade Policy Review Body)

23 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 23 WTO Institutional Structure Specialized Councils (IV:5 WTO) Council for Trade in Goods Council for Trade in Services Council for TRIPS Tasks delegated from the General Council Recommendations for authoritative interpretations Under TRIPS extend ten-year transition period for ldc

24 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 24 WTO Institutional Structure Committees and working parties (IV:6, 7 WTO) Committee on Trade and Development Committee on Regional Trade Agreements Working parties (temporary subsidiary bodies) New institutions Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) Established by Doha Development Round

25 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 25 WTO Institutional Structure Quasi-judicial bodies (DSU) Dispute settlement bodies: ad hoc established Panels, standing Appellate Bodies Textile Monitoring Body (TMB) 8:1 Agreement on Textiles and Clothing

26 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 26 WTO Institutional Structure WTO Secretariat (VI WTO) headed by the Director-General (appointed by MC) Renato Ruggiero Mike Moore Supachai Panitchpakdi Pascal Lamy

27 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 27 WTO Institutional Structure No decision-making powers of its own, member driven Provide technical and professional support for WTO bodies Provide technical assistance dc Provide information for media and public WTO Sekretariat organised in divisions

28 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 28 WTO Decision-making Normal procedure (IX:1 WTO) Decision-making by consensus; explicit objection Decision-making by majority voting EC special provision IX:1 WTO Special procedures Dispute settlement (DSU) Authoritative interpretations (IX:2 WTO) Waivers (IX:3-4 WTO), practise by consensus Amendments (X WTO)

29 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 29 WTO Decision-making WTO decision-making in practice; consensus over voting Reasons for and against consensus Efficiency v. legitimacy

30 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 30 Disputed matters: Decision- making Involvement of Developing countries Involvement and role of NGOs in decision- making and WTO Reforming and improving WTO structure Enhance transparency of WTO decision-making Contribute to the democratic accountability WTO Problem of secondary law and soft law and its inconsistencies

31 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 31 Disputed matters - DC and LDC Marginalisation? Internal transparency Decision-making with 149? Green Room meetings; major trading nations and select group of developing countries

32 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 32 Disputed Matters - Involvement of NGOs Involvement of NGOs? V:2 WTO + guidelines As watchdog? Arguments for and against NGOs with specialised knowledge enhance decision- making capacity Increase legitimacy of WTO Special interest groups Lack of legitimacy Developing countries suspicious of NGOs

33 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 33 WTO Status and Budget Status (VIII WTO) International legal personality WTO and the UN: independent from UN Budget (VII WTO) Increased budget for technical assistance and capacity- building Contributions of members on the basis of share of international trade services, goods last three years Management of trust funds Doha development Agenda Global Trust Fund

34 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 34 The WTO Agreements: An overview Multilateral Agreement Trade in Goods: GATT’94 GATS (services) Agreement TRIPS (IP rights) Agreement Multilateral agreements Agreement on Textiles and Clothing Agreement on Subsidies See list P.van den Bossche, p.45.

35 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 35 The WTO Agreements Plurilateral Agreements Agreement on the Trade in civil aircrafts Agreement on Government Procurement Dispute Settlement Understanding and WTO Dispute settlement reports

36 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 36 GATT/GATS/TRIPS Similarities and Differences Multilateral GATT and GATS: General principles – general and specific obligations (list of annexes) TRIPS: transitional arrangements dc, ldc

37 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 37 Fundamental Principles of the WTO Agreements Principle of non-discrimination Mfn under GATT/GATS/TRIPS National treatment under GATT/GATS/TRIPS Principle of freer and fair trade Rules on market access Rules on unfair trade Exemptions to rules and principles

38 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 38 Fundamental Principles of the WTO Agreements Principle of non-discrimination Mfn under GATT/GATS/TRIPS Art.I GATT Art.II GATS Art.4 TRIPS

39 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 39 Fundamental Principles of the WTO Agreements Principle of non-discrimination Mfn under GATT Other provisions MFN: GATT III:7, V, IX:1, XIII, XVII Prohibition of discrimination between like products originating in different countries De jure and de facto discrimination covered

40 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 40 MFN Treatment under GATT 1994 Nature of the MFN obligation Any advantage granted Customs duties Internal tax Internal regulations affecting the sale, distribution, use of the products

41 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 41 MFN Treatment under GATT 1994 Test of consistency Measure confers a trade ‘advantage’ Products are ‘like’: Similar or identical characteristics, indicators such as characteristics of the products, end-use and tariff regimes Advantage granted ‘immediately and unconditionally’

42 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 42 National Treatment under GATT 1994 Article III GATT 1994 Nature of the obligation Purpose of Article III imported products treated alike to national products Avoid protectionism Require equality of competitive conditions

43 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 43 National Treatment under GATT 1994 Internal measures versus border measures Internal measures only Art.II and XI to border measures Structure of Article III III:1, general principle III:2, internal taxation III:4 internal regulation:

44 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 44 National Treatment under GATT 1994 III:2, internal taxation two non-discrimination principles 1. Internal taxation of like products Imported and domestic products like products Imported products are taxed in excess of the domestic products 2. Internal taxation of directly competitive or substitutable products Consistency test: imported and domestic p. directly competitive or substitutable products not similarly taxed dissimilar taxation applied so as to afford protection to domestic production

45 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 45 Internal Regulations Article III:4 GATT 1994 Test of consistency Measure is ‘internal law, regulation or requirement affecting …’ Products are ‘like’ Imported products treated ‘no less favourable’

46 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 46 Rules on market access: Barriers to Trade Tariff barriers to trade in goods Customs duties, II Other duties and charges Non-tariff barriers to trade in goods Quantitative restrictions, XI Other non-tariff barriers

47 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 47 Customs Duties Customs duties or tariffs Definition and types: financial charge imposed at the time of importation Based on weight, volume, quantity value (ad valorem) mixed Purpose: revenue for government, protect domestic industry National tariffs such EC Common Customs Tariff EU Market Access Database mkaccdb.eu.int

48 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 48 GATT‘1994 Negotiations on tariff reductions Tariffs as a lawful instrument of protection Call for and success of tariff negotiations, Art.XXVIIIbis High customs duties by developing countries Principles of tariff negotiations Reciprocity and mutual advantage Mfn clause Except.: for developing countries

49 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 49 Tariff Concessions Results of tariff negotiations, Art.II Tariff concessions or tariff bindings Schedules of concessions Protection of tariff concessions Art. II:1(a) GATT 1994 Art. II:1(b), first sentence, GATT 1994 Modification or withdrawal of tariff concessions

50 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 50 Imposition of Customs Duties Customs classification HS Convention classification rules Customs valuation Art. VII GATT 1994 and WTO Customs Valuation Agreement Determination of origin WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin

51 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 51 Other Duties and Charges Definition and types: security deposit, statistical tax GATT rule Art. II:1(b), second sentence, GATT 1994 and WTO Understanding on Art. II:1(b) GATT 1994 Exceptions Art. II:2 GATT 1994

52 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 52 Quantitative Restrictions Quantitative restrictions Definition and types: limits the quantity Prohibition Ban Quota Licensing Voluntary export restraint

53 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 53 Quantitative Restrictions QR versus CD (customs duties) preference for cds Tariff quotas Prohibition of QRs Art. XI GATT 1994 Administration of QRs Art. XIII GATT 1994 and import licences

54 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 54 Other Non-Tariff Barriers: National Treatment or discrimination Technical barriers to trade (other non-tariff barriers) TBT Agreement (Technical Barriers to Trade) SPS Agreement (sanitary or phytosanitary measures) Lack of transparency Publication, notification & enquiry points Unfair and arbitrary application of trade rules Uniform, impartial and reasonable application Procedures for the objective and impartial review Customs formalities

55 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 55 Rules on unfair trade Dumping, basic framework VI GATT, GATT Antidumping Agreement not prohibited but condemned Main users: India, US and EC Biggest target: China, Korea, Malaysia, Russia and Thailand

56 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 56 Rules on unfair trade Definition of dumping: international price discrimination Definition of injury of importing industry Causal link between dumping and injury Procedural structure of antidumping measures: framework set by WTO, detailed provisions by members in Anti-dumping laws

57 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 57 Rules on unfair trade Response to injurious dumping Definitive antidumping duties Provisional measures

58 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 58 Rules on unfair trade Subsidies, XVI Financial contribution by government conferring a benefit Countervailing measures (VI), reaction to prohibited subsidies Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

59 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 59 System of exceptions General exception, XX Escape clause Art.XIX Security exceptions Art.XXI Regional trade arrangement exception, Art.XXIV Waiver Art.XXV:5

60 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 60 Exceptions/preferential treatment for and against developing countries, Exceptions/preferential treatment developing countries Since 1955 Art.XVIII (for) Waiver Art.XXV:5 (for) Introduced during Tokyo Round Enabling clause, Part IV Trade and Development, Art.XXXVI (4) (5), Article XXXVII (for)

61 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 61 Exceptions/preferential treatment for and against developing countries, Voluntary restraint agreements (against them) under the old GATT system, now prohibited under WTO Agreement on Safeguards Agriculture: US/EC „chicken war“ Textiles and Clothing: Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) under old GATT – bilateral restraint agreements

62 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 62 The GATS Agreement Now 60 percent of world GDP Global cross-border trade 20 % services General Principles MFN – Art.II Transparency Art.III Proportionality, Art.VI Specific obligations Market access regulation, Art.XVI National Treatment, Art.XVII

63 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 63 MFN Treatment under GATS Article II:1 GATS Nature of the obligation: prohibition of discrimination between services and services suppliers from different countries Covers de jure and de facto discrimination Test of consistency Measure covered by GATS Services & service suppliers are ‘like’ No less favourable treatment

64 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 64 MFN Treatment under GATS Test of consistency Measure covered by GATS By MS (local authorities etc.) Affecting services  Except. Services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority: health care, police protection Definition of supply of services (I:2) modes of supply  Cross-border  Consumption abroad  Commercial presence  Presence of natural persons

65 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 65 MFN Treatment under GATS Services & service suppliers are ‘like’ Characteristics of the service Classification and description of the service in the UN Central Product Classification (CPC) system Consumer habits, preferences reg. services No less favourable treatment Discrimination

66 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 66 MFN Treatment under GATS Exemptions (II:2) MS could list until MFN exemptions Transport Communications (audiovisual) Financial and business services Should not exceed ten years

67 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 67 National Treatment under GATS Article XVII GATS Nature of the obligations: Explicit commitment by member in specific sector Listed in Schedule of Specific commitments Such in regard to certain modes of supply Requirement to invest a certain amount of assets in local currency

68 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 68 National Treatment under GATS Test of consistency Measure affects services Services and service suppliers are ‘like’ No less favourable treatment

69 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 69 Barriers to Market Access for Services and Service Suppliers GATS rules on market access barriers GATS rules on other barriers to trade in services

70 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 70 Barriers to Market Access for Services and Service Suppliers Definition and types: market access Exhaustive list of Art. XVI:2 GATS Four types of quantitative restrictions Limitations on forms of legal entity Limitations on foreign equity participation Discriminatory and non-discriminatory Not related to quality or qualifications

71 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 71 Barriers to Market Access for Services and Service Suppliers Negotiations on market access Market access commitments Art. XIX GATS Art. XIX:2 GATS Schedules of specific commitments, annexed to GATS Horizontal commitments: All sectors Sectoral commitments

72 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 72 Progressive Liberalisation Modification or withdrawal of commitments, Art.XXI GATS Market access commitments agreed so far Modest and slowly Maritime transport Professional services Financial services

73 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 73 Other Barriers to Trade in Services Domestic regulation Disciplines on licensing, qualification requirements and technical standards Lack of transparency Publication, notification and enquiry points Unfair and arbitrary application of trade rules Reasonable, objective and impartial application

74 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 74 The TRIPS Agreement Background of the agreement: WIPO (1967), no dispute settlement system Importance of IP rights for developed countries Other international agreements on IP rights Paris Convention Industrial Property (1967) Berne Convention Artists work (1971)

75 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 75 TRIPS and its aims Aims (preamble) Effective and adequate protection of ip rights Not become barriers to legitimate trade Ip as private rights Developmental and technological objectives Ldc members and flexibility

76 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 76 The TRIPS Agreement Intellectual property Owner principle Country principle Incorporation of IP conventions Minimum standards of IP rights Objectives, Art.7 TRIPS Basic Principles National Treatment, Art.3 MFN clause, Art.4 Basic Principles

77 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 77 The TRIPS Agreement Structure of the Agreement minimum standards IP rights incorporations of IP conventions, Art.2 Compliance with 1 to 12, 19 Paris Convention individuals holders of IP rights discretion and flexibility: certain exceptions apply Example: patents Art.30, 31

78 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 78 The TRIPS Agreement Basic Principles National Treatment, Art.3 MFN clause, Art.4 Protection standards for IP

79 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 79 The TRIPS Agreement Protection standards for IP Exhaustion of rights, Art.6? Copyrights and related rights Trademark Geographical Indications Industrial Designs Patent Layout Design of Integrated circuits Undisclosed Information

80 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 80 The TRIPS Agreement National Treatment, Art.3 Not less favourable than IP conventions MFN clause, Art.4 Any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted Immediately and unconditionally to all other members Exceptions

81 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 81 The TRIPS Agreement Enforcement of IP rights, Art Members ensure effective remedies Fair equitable procedures, 42 Provisional measures, 50

82 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 82 The TRIPS Agreement: dc and ldc Transitional Arrangements, 65, 66 Entry into force: one year Developing country: four years Centrally-planned economy: four years Ldc: ten years, Extra extension for ldc until , until 2016 for pharmaceutical patents First waiver, now proposal for amendment for TRIPS agreement, 2/3 majority needed Doha declaration: public health and TRIPS

83 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 83 WTO Law in the Context of International and national Law WTO as International Law Overcame problems of the old GATT (provisional and not ratified agreement) Not a closed and self-contained system Conflicts between WTO agreements and MEA General principle of in conformity interpretation

84 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 84 WTO Law in the Context of International and national Law WTO and national Law XVI:4 WTO Agreement general rule of international law No interpretation of national law Effect in national law Treaty-consistent interpretation Collission between national and WTO law  Direct effect of WTO provisions in national law?  Right of consumer to free trade?

85 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 85 Conclusion: Balancing Interests WTO Most effective global trade organisation “Secretive and medieval organisation”

86 WTO: Evolution, Structure and Agreements 86 Conclusion: Balancing Interests Sutherland Report 2005 on the Future of the WTO Restrain on preferential trade agreements Clear objectives for the WTO’s relation with civil society Appropiate technical assistance and capacity building for ldc Role of Director-General strengthened


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