Systematic Layout Planning - 2 Hierarchy of Facility Planning Facility Planning Structural Design Facility Location Facility Design Handling System Design Layout Design Source for Figure: Tompkins and White, Facilities Planning, 2nd edition, Wiley
Systematic Layout Planning - 3 Facility Design Sequential Approach vs. Integrated Approach Product Design Production Planning Process Design Facility Layout Material Handling System Design Sequential Approach
Systematic Layout Planning - 4 Integrated Approach: Impressive results in cost, quality, productivity, sales, customer satisfaction, delivery time, inventory levels, space + handling requirements, building size, etc. Product Design Process Design Schedule Design Layout Design + Material Handling System Design Concurrent Engineering Terms of product, process, scheduling and facility design planners work with marketing, purchasing, etc. Personnel address the design process in an integrated way. Facility Design Sequential Approach vs. Integrated Approach
Systematic Layout Planning - 5 Requirements of a Good Layout an understanding of capacity and space requirements selection of appropriate material handling equipment decisions regarding environment and aesthetics identification and understanding of the requirements for information flow identification of the cost of moving between the various work areas
Systematic Layout Planning - 6 Engineering Design Process Typically, design problems do not have well-defined, unique, optimum solutions. We are interested in obtaining a satisfactory solution. General Procedure for Solving Engineering Design Problems 1. Formulate the problem. 2. Analyze the problem. 3. Search for alternative solutions. 4. Evaluate the design alternatives. 5. Select the preferred design. 6. Implement the design.
Systematic Layout Planning - 7 Application of the Engineering Design Process to Facility Planning 1. Define (or redefine) the objective of the facility: Specify quantitatively the products to be produced or service to be provided. 2.Specify the primary and support activities to be performed in accomplishing the objective: Requirements for primary activities include operations, equipment, personnel, and material flows. 3.Determine the interrelationships among all activities: Both qualitative and quantitative relationships should be defined. 4.Determine the space requirements for all activities: These are determined considering the equipment, materials, and personnel requirements.
Systematic Layout Planning - 8 Application of the Engineering Design Process to Facility Planning 5.Generate alternative facility plans: Including alternative facility locations and alternative designs for the facility. 6. Evaluate alternative facility plans: Determine the important factors (see list of factors). For each candidate plan, evaluate if and how those factors will affect the facility and its operations. 7.Select a facility plan: Cost may not be the only major consideration. Use the information in step 6 to determine a plan (pair-wise comparison is a good ranking procedure).
Systematic Layout Planning - 9 Application of the Engineering Design Process to Facility Planning 8.Implement the facility plan: Considerable amount of planning must precede the construction of a facility or the layout of an area. 9.Maintain and adapt the facility plan: The facility plan must be modified as new requirements are placed, e.g., new energy saving measures, changes in product design may require different flow pattern or handling equipment, etc. 10.Redefine the objective of the facility: Similar to step 1. Changes in product design and/or quantities may require changes into the layout plan.
Systematic Layout Planning - 10 Layout Planning Important Factors In developing well-thought facilities design alternatives it is important to look into issues such as: a) Layout characteristics a) Layout characteristics - total distance traveled - manufacturing floor visibility - overall aesthetics of the layout - ease of adding future business b) Material handling requirements b) Material handling requirements - use for the current material handling equipment - investment requirements on new equipment - space and people requirements
Systematic Layout Planning - 11 c) Unit load implied - impact on WIP levels - space requirements - impact on material handling equipment d) Storage strategies - space and people requirements - impact on material handling equipment - human factors risks e) Overall building impact - estimated cost of the alternatives - opportunities for new business Layout Planning Important Factors
Systematic Layout Planning - 13 Naddler’s Ideal System Approach The ideal system approach is based on the following hierarchical approach toward design: 1. Aim for the “theoretical ideal system.” 2. Conceptualize the “ultimate ideal system.” 3. Design the “technologically workable ideal system.” 4. Install the “recommended system.” Theoretical ideal system Ultimate ideal system Technologically workable system Recommended system Present system
Systematic Layout Planning - 14 Immer’s Basic Steps Immer described the analysis of a layout problem as follows: “This analysis should be composed of three simple steps, which can be applied to any type of layout problem. These steps are: 1. Put the problem on the paper. 2. Show lines of flow. 3. Convert flow lines to machine lines.”
Systematic Layout Planning - 15 Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure Apple recommended that the following detailed sequence of steps be used designing a plant layout of steps be used in designing a plant layout 1. Procure the basic data.11. Determine storage requirements 2. Analyze the basic data.12. Plan service and auxiliary activities. 3. Design the productive process.13. Determine space requirements 4. Plan the material flow pattern.14. Allocate activities to total space 5. Consider the general material handling plan15. Consider building type 6. Calculate equipment requirements.16. Consider master layouts 7. Plan individual work stations.17. Evaluate, adjust and check the layout 8. Select specific material handling equipment18. Obtain approval 9. Coordinate groups of related operations.19. Install the layout 10. Design activity relationships.20. Follow up on implementation of the layout
Systematic Layout Planning - 16 Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure In “planning for and preparing the layout,” Reed recommended that the following steps be taken in his “systematic plan of attach”: 1. Analyze the product to be produced. 2. Determine the process required to manufacture the product. 3. Prepare layout planning charts. 4. Determine work stations. 5. Analyze storage area requirements. 6. Establish minimum aisle widths. 7. Establish office requirements. 8. Consider personnel facilities and services. 9. Survey plant services. 10. Provide for future expansion.
Systematic Layout Planning - 18 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Information Gathering PQRST items Product: what is to be produced Quantity: volume to be produced Routing: how it is to be produced Support services: with what will we produce Timing/Transport: when to produce and how to move parts in & out Quantity & Variety often dictate the layout type (product/process, etc.) can be used to determine o which products justify their own lines, o which families justify their own cells.
Systematic Layout Planning - 19 Photographs about the product “Exploded” drawings Engineering drawings of individual parts Parts list Bill of materials (structure of product) Assembly chart Route sheet Operations process chart Etc. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Information Gathering
Systematic Layout Planning - 21 Schedule design decisions tell us how much to produce and when to produce. Market Forecast Number of Machines Production Demand Production Rate Product Mix + Production Rate Continuous or Intermittent Production Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Information Gathering
Systematic Layout Planning - 22 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Flow Analysis and Activity Analysis Flow analysisquantitative Flow analysis concentrates on some quantitative measure of movement between departments or activities Activity analysisnon-quantitative Activity analysis is primarily concerned with the non-quantitative factors that influence the location of departments or activities Charts and diagrams useful in flow analysis Charts and diagrams useful in flow analysis: - Flow process chart - Multi-product process charts - Flow diagram - From-to-charts
Systematic Layout Planning - 23 A B C D E ABCDE AB C DEF AB D E F B C A D E AB C Basic Flow Patterns Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Flow Analysis and Activity Analysis
Systematic Layout Planning - 26 L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G A AA Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department P P Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Flow and Activity Analysis
Systematic Layout Planning - 29 Desirability (or lack) of locating two work-centers together information that is difficult to quantify (example 1) shipping & receiving - share common facilities (e.g., loading docks) (example 2) engineering & purchasing - efficient communication, quality, (example 3) environmental factors - delicate testing vs. vibration Summarized in a relationship or REL chart Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Flow and Activity Analysis
Systematic Layout Planning - 30 CodeReason 1 Frequency of use high 2 Frequency of use medium 3 Frequency of use low 4 Information flow high 5 Information flow medium 6 Information flow low RatingDefinition A Absolutely Necessary E Especially Important I Important O Ordinary Closeness OK U Unimportant X Undesirable 1. Directors conference room 2. President 3. Sales department 4. Personnel 5. Plant manager 6. Plant engineering office 7. Production supervisor 8. Controller office 9. Purchasing department I1O5U6O5A4I4U6I4I1O5U6O5A4I4U6I4 I1U6I4O5A4O5O5I1U6I4O5A4O5O5 U 3O 5O5O5O5E4U 3O 5O5O5O5E4 O2U 6O5O5O5O2U 6O5O5O5 U3U 6E4O4U3U 6E4O4 U3I4I4U3I4I4 U3O 5U3O 5 U6U6 Activity Relationship Chart Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Flow and Activity Analysis
Systematic Layout Planning - 31 Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reason Type of customer Ease of supervision Common personnel Contact necessary Share same price Psychology Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relationship Chart Activity Relationship Chart
Systematic Layout Planning - 32 From 1. Credit department 2. Toy department 3. Wine department 4. Camera department 5. Candy department 6 I -- U 4 A U U 1 I 6 A U 1 X 1 X To 234 5 Area (sq. ft.) 100 400 300 100 Closeness rating Reason for rating Note here that the (1) Credit Dept. and (2) Toy Dept. are given a rating of 6. Letter Number Note here that the (2) Toy Dept. and the (5) Candy Dept. are given a rating of 6. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relationship Chart
Systematic Layout Planning - 33 Value A E I O U X Closeness Line code Numerical weights Absolutely necessary Especially important Important Ordinary closeness OK Unimportant Undesirable 16 8 4 2 0 -80 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram
Systematic Layout Planning - 34 1 2 4 3 5 U U E A I The number of lines here represent paths required to be taken in transactions between the departments. The more lines, the more the interaction between departments. Note here again, Depts. (1) and (2) are linked together, and Depts. (2) and (5) are linked together by multiple lines or required transactions. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram (or Activity Relationship Diagram)
Systematic Layout Planning - 35 CodeReason 1 Flow of material 2 Ease of supervision 3 Common personnel 4 Contact Necessary 5 Conveniences Rating Definition A Absolutely Necessary E Especially Important I Important O Ordinary Closeness OK U Unimportant X Undesirable 1. Offices 2. Foreman 3. Conference Room 4.Parcel Post 5. Parts Shipment 6. Repair and Service Parts 7. Service Areas 8.Receiving 9. Testing 10. General Storage O4 I5UUUE3UUE3O4 I5UUUE3UUE3 E5O4UO4UUE3A 1E5O4UO4UUE3A 1 O 3 I 2UUU I4UO 3 I 2UUU I4U U I 2UUUUU I 2UUUU U I 2UUA 1U I 2UUA 1 UO 2U I 1UO 2U I 1 U I 2UU I 2U U I 2U I 2 U Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relationship Chart
Systematic Layout Planning - 36 10 5 87 96 423 1 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram Relationship Diagram The Relationship Diagram positions activities spatially. Proximities are typically used to reflect the relationship between pairs of activities
Systematic Layout Planning - 37 Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Based on the input data and an understanding of the roles and relationship between activities, a material flow analysis (from-to-chart) and an activity relationship analysis (activity relationship chart) are performed. From the analysis performed, a relationship diagram is developed.
Systematic Layout Planning - 38 Production-center method Converting method – the present space requirements are converted to those required for the proposed layout Roughed-out layout method – using templates or models on the layout to obtain an estimate of configuration and space requirements Ratio trend projection method – for general space requirements e.g. square feet per direct labor hour, square feet per unit produced, etc. Space Determination Systematic Layout Planning Procedure
Systematic Layout Planning - 39 Raw material storage In-process inventory storage Finished-goods storage Aisles, cross isles, and main aisles Receiving and shipping Material handling equipment storage Tool rooms and tool cribs Maintenance Packaging Space Determination Quality control and inspection Supervision Health and medical facilities Food service Lavatories, washrooms, etc. Offices Employee and visitor parking Receiving and shipping parking Other storage Systematic Layout Planning Procedure
Systematic Layout Planning - 43 Relationship diagram: all departments are of equal size. Space Relationship diagram: templates proportional in size to departmental space requirement Systematic Layout Planning Procedure
Systematic Layout Planning - 44 Relationship diagram Activity Relations and Relationship Diagram – Another example Systematic Layout Planning Procedure
Systematic Layout Planning - 47 Modifying considerations and limitations Site-specific and Operation-specific conditions possible adjustment to the layout Example: Location of external transportation system (e.g., rail, road, river access) → may restrict the location of shipping and receiving limitations on access to utilities (HVAC, lighting, etc) in certain areas aisles should be straight and close to the point where move requests are generated without obstructing manufacturing activities Systematic Layout Planning Procedure
Systematic Layout Planning - 49 Evaluation Factor-analysis method (evaluating the layout alternatives) List all of the factors to be considered important Weight the relative importance of each of these factors to each other Rate the alternative plans against one factor at a time Calculate the weighted rating values and sum up those values to obtain the total value for each of the alternatives Select the alternative with the highest total value Factors Cost, flexibility, maintainability, expandability (modularity), safety, operation ease Systematic Layout Planning Procedure
Systematic Layout Planning - 50 Evaluation - Location Rating Factor Identify important factors Weight factors (usually 0.00 - 1.00 or 0.00 - 100) Subjectively score each factor Sum weighted scores Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Also see Unit 06B
Systematic Layout Planning - 51 Production Offices Stockroom Shipping and receiving Locker room Tool Room A A A OO O O O U U U U E X I A Absolutely necessary E Especially important I Important O Okay U Unimportant X Undesirable A Absolutely necessary E Especially important I Important O Okay U Unimportant X Undesirable Activity Relationship Charting Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example A – Page 1
Systematic Layout Planning - 52 Key:A E I O U X Offices Stockroom Locker room Tool Room Shipping and receiving Production Relationship diagram of original layout Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example A – Page 2
Systematic Layout Planning - 53 Relationship diagram of revised layout Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example A – Page 3 Offices Stockroom Locker room Tool Room Shipping and receiving Production Key:A EIOUX
Systematic Layout Planning - 54 Area Space needs (ft 2 ) Branch manager200 Head teller150 Teller counter/break room600 New accounts clerk100 Loan officers200 Customer waiting room/lounge150 Lobby 500 Branch Bank Example Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example B – Page 1
Systematic Layout Planning - 55 1. Branch Manager 2. Head Teller 3. Teller Counter/ Break Room 4. New Accounts Clerk 5. Loan Officer 6. Customer Lounge/ Break Room 1100 I 100 U 1000 I 2400 E 1600 E 800 I 400 O 300 0 100 U 300 O 200 O 800 I 50 U 70 U 50 U Note: Lobby to be central to all Steps 1 & 2: Work flows and REL chart Steps 1 & 2: Work flows and REL chart Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example B – Page 2
Systematic Layout Planning - 56 3 2 4 1 6 5 Key A E I O U Step 3: Arrange Work Areas 7 To all 7 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example B – Page 3
Systematic Layout Planning - 57 5 600 ft 2 150 ft 2 200 ft 2 2 Step 4: Space Arrangement 3 2 1 6 150 ft 2 100 ft 2 4 7 500 ft 2 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example B – Page 4
Systematic Layout Planning - 58 12- 8 3 2 4 1 6 5 600 ft 2 100 ft 2 150 ft 2 156 ft 2 228 ft 2 216 ft 2 Lobby 450 ft 2 100 ft 2 Entry 50’ 40’ Step 5: Floor Plan 7 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Example B – Page 5
Systematic Layout Planning - 59 Straight-line Flow Pattern when possible Backtracking kept to a Minimum Predictable Production Time Little In-process materials storage Open Floor plans so everyone can see what is going on Bottlenecks under control Workstations close together Minimum of material handling Easy adjustment to changing conditions Principles of a Good Layout - Manufacturing
Systematic Layout Planning - 60 Layout Example - Manufacturing
Systematic Layout Planning - 61 Easily understood service flow pattern Adequate waiting facilities Easy communication with customers Customers in view of servers throughout the process Clear entry and exit points with adequate checkout facilities Customers see only what you want them to see Balance between waiting and service areas Minimum walking and material movement Lack of clutter Principles of a Good Layout - Service
Systematic Layout Planning - 62 Office Layout Considerations: Layouts need to account for physical environment and psychological needs of the organization One key layout trade-off is between proximity and privacy Open concept offices promote understanding & trust Flexible layouts incorporating “office landscaping” help to solve the privacy issue in open office environments Principles of a Good Layout - Service