2Set up Cornell Notes11-1 The Work of Gregor Mendel
3Gregor Mendel Austrian live in the mid 1800’s Born to peasant farmers Became a monk and lived in a monastery
4Gregor Mendel“Father of Genetics”Experimented garden plants and small farm animals to understand genetics.Known mostly for his experiments with pea plants
5Genetics Scientific study of heredity The study of how parents pass down traits to their offspring
6InheritanceThe passing of traits from parents to offspring.
7Mendel’s ExperimentsMendel Cross Pollinated Pea Plants and Studied how their traits were passed from 1 generation to the nextKept DETAILED records (Data)Analyzed data and came up with conclusions that eventually were turned into the laws of genetics
10TraitSpecific characteristic that varies from one individual to anotherTraits Mendel looked at:Mendel started with purebreds and all offspring came out looking like their parents.Short
11What is Probability?Question: If I toss a penny 50 times, how many times will it land on heads? Hypothesis: Data: Heads Tails Totals: %Heads & %Tails Conclusion:
12ProbabilityQuestion: If we add up all of the coin tosses in the class, what do you think the percentage of times did the pennies land heads? Hypothesis: Data: Totals % heads tails Conclusion:
13ProbabilityQuestion: If we add up all of the coin tosses in all of Ms. Hau’s classes, what do you think the percentage of times did the pennies land heads?Hypothesis:Data: Totals %headstailsConclusion:
14Probability It’s the likelihood that an event will happen Its Not ExactOne event does not affect the nextThe more times you repeat an event the more likely you’ll get closer to your predicted outcome.
15Purebred/ Homozygous TT = tall & tt = short Genetically pure for a particular trait. Both genes are the same for a trait.OffspringParentsTT = tall & tt = short
17Hybrid / Heterozygous Tt = Tall Have two different forms of a gene dogfoose.wordpress.com
18GeneA segment on a chromosome consisting of a long sequence of nitrogen bases that code for a protein. (Proteins do the work in cells and determine traits)
19Allele OR Example: Gene for Plant height -Allele for Tall OR Different form of a geneORExample:Gene for Plant height-Allele for TallOR-Allele for ShortOROR
20Mendel’s Principle of Dominance States that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
21Dominant Allele The stronger form of a gene. Represented by the capital letter of the dominant trait. (T=tall)If present will be the trait that is expressed.
22Recessive Allele The weaker form of a gene. Is represented with a lower case letter. (t=short)Recessive trait hides unless both genes are the recessive allele.
23Genetic Data Collection P- generationF2- generationF1- generationThe first set of parents were called the “P” generationThe resulting offspring were called the “F1” generationThe offspring of the F1 generation were called the “F2” generation
27SegregationAll living things contain 2 genes for every trait, one from their mother and one from their fatherDuring production of sex cells the chromosomes separate so that each gamete have only 1 set of chromosomes