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Lindsea Vaudt Laura Ruskamp 12.7.12. Ball over the net and inside the service box Difficult return or no return High ball velocity Ball spin Score Fluid.

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Presentation on theme: "Lindsea Vaudt Laura Ruskamp 12.7.12. Ball over the net and inside the service box Difficult return or no return High ball velocity Ball spin Score Fluid."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lindsea Vaudt Laura Ruskamp

2 Ball over the net and inside the service box Difficult return or no return High ball velocity Ball spin Score Fluid rhythm Energy storage

3 Types of Serves: Flat: minimum spin, low, straight Most common Highest velocity Kick: heavy spin (top spin), more net clearance, direction change on landing Greatest force and torque Highest injury potential Slice: side spin, curves toward or away from receiver Lowest force and torque

4 MenWomen 1. S. Groth (Australia): mph (2012)1. V. Williams (USA): 129 mph (2007) 2. I. Karlovic (Croatia): 156 mph (2011)2. S. Williams (USA): 128 mph (2010) 3. M. Raonic (Canada): mph (2012)3. J. Georges (Germany): mph (2012) 4. A. Roddick (USA): 155 mph (2004)4. B. Schultz-McCarthy (Netherlands): 126 mph (2007)

5 Phase 1: Starting Position Preparatory Movements Phase 2: Coil Wind-Up Backswing Phase 3: Un-Coil Force Producing Movements Acceleration Phase 4: Follow-Through Recovery *movements occur in all planes of motion

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7 Begins at “ready position” and ends with ball release from the non-dominant hand

8 Knee flexion/extension, hip flexion/extension, shoulder rotation, back flexion/extension Initiates the storage of potential energy in the upper limb Low injury risk Muscles used: Rotator Cuff muscles, Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius

9 From ball release to point of maximal external rotation of dominant shoulder

10 Body twists away from net, knees and hips flex, back extends and rotates away from net Helps to store even more potential energy in the shoulder Leads to a higher swing velocity Injury Risk: Higher risk Shoulder bears 40% of body weight Impingement, anterior labral injuries, musculotendinous injuries Muscles used: Abdominal muscles, rotator cuff muscles, pectoralis major is most active

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12 Power Flexibility Range of motion in the shoulder and back Racquet drop, “scratching the back” Racquet parallel to the right side of the body Rotation of the trunk and arm (shoulder over shoulder) Shifts the angular momentum forward Whip hips, torso, shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and racquet movements Shoulders parallel to the net prior to impact Need to use both upper and lower body

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14 Skills following contact with the ball Racquet arm follows across the body to the center line Angular momentum into linear momentum Body and arm rotation Rotation of hips and shoulders Hip and trunk rotation to get the right leg whipped around End low and prepared for the return

15 2-20 injuries per 1000 hours played “Violent maneuver which requires power and acceleration” High internal forces and repetitive mechanics are source of injury Limit serve number, proper physical preparation, proper technique Tennis Elbow (lateral epicondylitis): Most common injury Shoulder injuries also common

16 Focus: Back and shoulder strength Ex: resistance bands, light dumbbell exercises External rotator strength Stress experienced because of imbalance compared to internal rotators Pronation and supination of wrist Abdominal muscles and core strength Lower limbs Flexibility - stretching

17 Serve one of most important moments in tennis Small changes have large effect on biomechanics of the serve and injury potential Initial phases store potential energy High potential for injury Proper technique is key Caused by high internal forces

18 Abrams, G. D., Sheets, A. L., Andriacchi, T. P., & Safran, M. R. (2011). Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury. Sports Biomechanics, 10(4), Elliot, B. (2006). Biomechanics and tennis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, doi: /bjsm Eygendaal, D., Rahussen, F. T. G., & Diercks, R. L. (2007). Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, doi: /bjsm Goktepe, A., Ak, E., Sogut, M., Karabork, H., & Korkusuz, F. (2009). Joint angles during successful and unsuccessful tennis serves; kinematics of tennis serve. Joint Diseases and Related Surgery, 20(3), Pro Tennis Internet Network. (2012, September 12). Serve speed leaders. Retrieved from leaders_ _ Abrams, G. D., Sheets, A. L., Andriacchi, T. P., & Safran, M. R. (2011). Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury. Sports Biomechanics,10(4), Reid, M., Whiteside, D., & Elliot, B. (2011). Serving to different locations: Set up, toss, and racket kinematics of the professional tennis serve. Sports Biomechanics, 10(4),


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