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Lecture 23: Trade and pests. Key Points: Trade and pests ID the below three species –CPB –SWD –BMSB What is the underlying reason why problems like CPB.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 23: Trade and pests. Key Points: Trade and pests ID the below three species –CPB –SWD –BMSB What is the underlying reason why problems like CPB."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 23: Trade and pests

2 Key Points: Trade and pests ID the below three species –CPB –SWD –BMSB What is the underlying reason why problems like CPB develops Which of these three abovementioned species switched hosts Which species affects small fruit Which species affects fruit, veg and nurseries

3 CPB: A serious pest of potatoesCPB: A serious pest of potatoes –now cosmopolitan –with a fascinating history Handsome devil, ‘ eh?

4 Voyage of the Beetle 17 th century & the Spanish Conquista17 th century & the Spanish Conquista Living in central Mexico was a beetleLiving in central Mexico was a beetle which fed on burweeds (Solanum rostratum) It’s name was Leptinotarsa decemlineata

5 BurweedBurweed –also known as Buffalo Bur &/or Kansas Thistle –Native of Meso-America (NOT North America) –Primary host plant for L. decemlineata

6 L. decemlineata Life HistoryLife History –wet season & female cements her eggs to bur weed leaves - batches of ca. 20 eggs

7 L. decemlineata Adults are brightly coloredAdults are brightly colored –warning coloration –“ mess with me & I ’ ll toss my cookies ” Larval beetle is brightly coloredLarval beetle is brightly colored

8 L. decemlineata Both adult and larval beetles are defoliatorsBoth adult and larval beetles are defoliators

9 L. decemlineata Step Number One Necessary to get this

10 L. decemlineata Note:Note: –In the 17 th century the potato was NOT found in North America or Mexico. –In the 17 th century L. decemlineata was NOT a pest insect for the indigenous peoples of Meso America.

11 Voyage of the Beetle Spanish introduced cattle to the “New” worldSpanish introduced cattle to the “New” world “Vaca” driven to northern markets in Texas in late 17 th & early 18 th centuries.“Vaca” driven to northern markets in Texas in late 17 th & early 18 th centuries. The cows carried the spiny seeds of the burweed, and the plant began a northward migration.The cows carried the spiny seeds of the burweed, and the plant began a northward migration. Bison also picked up the burweed seeds and carried them even further north.Bison also picked up the burweed seeds and carried them even further north.

12 Voyage of the Beetle As the host burweed plant moved north, so followed the beetle.As the host burweed plant moved north, so followed the beetle. The beetles followed the northward trail of their host plant and by 1820 had reached the Great Plains of America.The beetles followed the northward trail of their host plant and by 1820 had reached the Great Plains of America. It was here that the beetle was discovered by the entomologist Thomas Say and named.It was here that the beetle was discovered by the entomologist Thomas Say and named.

13 The potato Native to the western highlands of South AmericaNative to the western highlands of South America Solanum tuberosumSolanum tuberosum –a.k.a. the IRISH potato “Discovered” by Franciso Pizarro in 1531 during his “rape” of the Inca empire.

14 The potato Popular Elizabethan English legend has it that the potato was brought to England about 1580 by either Sir Francis Drake, or Sir Walter Raleigh, or Both!!

15 The potato –potato seed stock sent from Ireland back to the “New” World (New Hampshire, actually). Potato culture (growing) spread quickly throughout AmericaPotato culture (growing) spread quickly throughout America Hypothesized that L. decemlineata first encountered potatoes ca. 1820Hypothesized that L. decemlineata first encountered potatoes ca. 1820

16 The potato & the beetle –CPB made the transition from burweed to potato in central plains of U.S. –CPB population EXPLODED –Described in terms of biblical plagues, especially along the northeastern U.S. seaboard potato growing regions.

17 The potato & the beetle 1875 –CPB crosses the Atlantic to England {a small gift to our cousins} {a small gift to our cousins} –during the next 100 years they spread throughout Europe.

18 The potato & the beetle –W.L. Tower shows that CPB originated in Mexico, NOT Colorado or Iowa as many believed. –Mexican CPB populations have yellow larvae that do not eat potatoes –American CPB populations have red larvae that love to eat potatoes –Tower believed the CPB of the U.S. was a new “variety”/subspecies.

19 The potato & the beetle –T.H. Hsiao (geneticist at Utah State Univ.) –Found a chromosomal inversion in the potato eating variety of the CPB –Potato eating gene (allele) found to be dominant & explained the feed switch which elevated the beetle into major pest status.

20 Very minor genetic differences have enabled the beetle to switch plant hosts. {And} the beetle populations that have followed have had a major impact on our agriculture and history. Very minor genetic differences have enabled the beetle to switch plant hosts. {And} the beetle populations that have followed have had a major impact on our agriculture and history. Lu & Lazell Final Thoughts

21 CPB Control Huge list of chemical materials.Huge list of chemical materials. Some novelties:Some novelties: –Transgenic potatoes that have had B.t. genes incorporated so that the plant produces B.t. toxins. –Sounds good!! But what are some problems?? ResistanceResistance use as human fooduse as human food

22

23 Spotted Wing Vinegar Fly a.k.a Cherry Vinegar Fly Drosophila suzukii The “Newest” Plague to the PNW

24 Drosophila diversity

25 Female flies about to oviposite on a rasp- berry fruit. D. suzukii

26 Hosts

27 Infested blueberry {with oviposition holes} Fly larvae exiting blueberry

28 Spotted Wing Drosophila D. Dalton

29 D. suzukii biography First “discovered” in Japan {1916} Pest throughout Asia First seen in U.S. in the autumn of 2008 {California} First seen in PNW in 2009 –Blueberries & Raspberries = 20% loss –California cherry industry = 30% loss

30 SWD U.S. Distribution

31 D. suzukii biology Thrives in cooler climates {read that as the Willamette Valley} Up to ten generations per year Short life cycle (egg to adult) = as little as ten days Multiple fruit hosts available in western fruit growing regions of the PNW.

32 The future: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug This bug has a wide host range, potentially causing even more economic damage than SWD even more economic damage than SWD

33 Key Points: Trade and pests ID the below three species –CPB –SWD –BMSB What is the underlying reason why problems like CPB develops Which of these three abovementioned species switched hosts Which species affects small fruit Which species affects fruit, veg and nurseries


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