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**Section 11-2: Probability and Punnett Squares**

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**1. Probability The likelihood that a particular event will happen**

For example: A Coin Toss 2. A coin has a 50% chance to be heads or tails 3. Is the outcome of the flip determinant on past flips? No!

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**Probability and Genetics**

How does probability effect genetics? The Segregation of Alleles 4. When alleles segregate it is completely random, very similar to a coin toss. Interesting to think of how things could have been different don’t you think?

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The Punnett Square 5. Allows possible gene combinations to be predicted by the use of a diagram Can be used to predict and compare genetic variations that will result from a cross As well as the probability of occurance

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**Punnett Square Diagram**

Dominant Alleles Recessive Alleles T t

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**8. Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a particular trait**

Ex: TT or tt “True-Breeding” for a Particular Trait Examples: Hydras Mushrooms Bacteria

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10. Heterozygous Organisms having two different alleles for the same trait Ex: Tt “Hybrids” for a particular trait Examples: Cross Pollinating Plants Mules The majority of higher organisms

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**9. Phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism**

In our Punnett Square example what are our phenotypes? Tall TT or Tt Short tt

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**7. Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism**

In our Punnett Square example what would the genotypes be? TT- 25% Tt- 50% tt- 25%

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**Phenotype VS Genotype:**

Plant 1: Homozygous (TT) Plant 2: Heterozygous (Tt) 12. Just because an organism has the same phenotype, that doesn’t mean it always has the same genotype.

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**13.Probability and Segregation**

Let’s look at our Hybrid Cross results: 14. Mendel’s Requirements for Segregation ¾ of plants displayed the Tall phenotype ¼ of plants displayed the Short phenotype 3:1 ratio of tall to short plants Did Segregation occur in relation to Mendel’s model? YES!

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**Probabilities Predicting Averages**

15.Probabilities predict the average outcome of large scale events, BUT not precise individual events 16. For example: Coin Toss You can get 50:50 ratio but it could take you numerous tosses Are the odds in our favor for just 2 tosses?

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**Probabilities Predicting Averages**

17. The larger the number of offspring in a genetic cross, the better chances that the values will show the 3:1 ratio. 18. So which would offer the better data? An F1 generation of 100? An F1 generation of 1000?

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Probability and Punnett Squares 11-2. Genetics and Probability The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called probability.probability As.

Probability and Punnett Squares 11-2. Genetics and Probability The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called probability.probability As.

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