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Advanced LABVIEW EE 2303

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Overview Of Presentation Introduction to Probability Keywords in Probability Sample Problems in Probability Overview of Experiment Summary

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What is Probability??? Probability is a measure of “how likely an event is to happen”. Mathematical Expression: Number of Favorable outcomes Total Number of possible outcomes

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Example Tossing a coin: Probability of getting an HEAD= ½ Probability of getting a TAIL=1/2

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KEYWORDS IN PROBABILITY An experiment is any process that generates well-defined outcomes. The sample space for an experiment is the set of all experimental outcomes. An “Event” is an element of the sample space, any one particular outcome.

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Tossing a Die Events: Sample space: 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 S ={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}S 1 3 6 2 4 5 Some graphic screen captures from Seeing Statistics ® Some images © 2001-(current year) www.arttoday.com

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FACTS ABOUT PROBABILITY Permissible values for Probability: 0- 1 Probability of an Impossible Event = 0 Probability of Sure Event = 1 Probability of Event not happening = 1 – probability (event happening) Probability (“Event happening at least once) = 1- probability ( event not happening)

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Sample Problems Experiment: Rolling a die Sample Space: S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} Probabilities: Each Event has a 1/6 chance of occurring.

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Example Toss a fair coin twice. What is the probability of observing at least one head? HH HT TH TT ANSWER : Probability (at least 1 head) = 3/4 Some graphic screen captures from Seeing Statistics ® Some images © 2001-(current year) www.arttoday.com

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Hints for Pre lab…. When experiment is performed “n times”… (Probability of event happening) n.. [note: for event to occur successively] Probability of Event not happening = 1 – probability (event happening) Probability of Event happening at least once = 1- prob (event not happening)

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Working in the Diagram Draw a For Loop Functions Structures For Loop Draw a Case structure Functions Structures Case

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Adding More to Diagram Add a shift register Operate Value tool Right Click on edge of For Loop Select Add Register Add 2 addition boxes Add division box

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Adding More to Diagram Add Random Number Functions Numeric Random (0-1) Add Round to Nearest Functions Numeric Round to Nearest

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Adding More to Diagram Add Equal box Functions Comparison Equal? Add Wait box Functions Time & Delay Wait (ms)

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Need Some Constants Add constant of value 100 to Wait (ms) Add constants of value 1 to Both additions Shift Register Add constant of value 0 Equal box

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Need Some Wire Wire the circuit up as shown Change the case to “True” Wire the tunnels through the Case structure Of “True” case

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Run the Simulation Return to Front Panel Change to Operate Value Tool Choose a number of trials “Run simulation once”

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Summary Probability… Overview of Experiment.. Hints to Pre lab…

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