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9. Systems of Particles Center of Mass Momentum

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1 9. Systems of Particles Center of Mass Momentum
Kinetic Energy of a System Collisions Totally Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions

2 Ans. His center of mass (CM)
As the skier flies through the air, most parts of his body follow complex trajectories. But one special point follows a parabola. What’s that point, and why is it special? Ans. His center of mass (CM) Rigid body: Relative particle positions fixed.

3 9.1. Center of Mass N particles: 
= total mass = Center of mass = mass-weighted average position with 3rd law  Cartesian coordinates: Extension: “particle” i may stand for an extended object with cm at ri .

4 Example 9.1. Weightlifting
Find the CM of the barbell consisting of 50-kg & 80-kg weights at opposite ends of a 1.5 m long bar of negligible weight. CM is closer to the heavier mass.

5 Example 9.2. Space Station 2: 2m x L 1: m 3:m y
A space station consists of 3 modules arranged in an equilateral triangle, connected by struts of length L & negligible mass. 2 modules have mass m, the other 2m. Find the CM. Coord origin at m2 = 2m & y points downward. 2: 2m x 30 L CM obtainable by symmetry 1: m 3:m y

6 Continuous Distributions of Matter
Discrete collection: Continuous distribution: Let  be the density of the matter.

7 Example 9.3. Aircraft Wing y W x L
A supersonic aircraft wing is an isosceles triangle of length L, width w, and negligible thickness. It has mass M, distributed uniformly. Where’s its CM? Density of wing = . Coord origin at leftmost tip of wing. By symmetry, y dx h W x L

8 y b dy w/2 W x w/2 L

9 CMfuselage CMplane CMwing A high jumper clears the bar, but his CM doesn’t.

10 Got it? 9.1. A thick wire is bent into a semicircle.
Which of the points is the CM?

11 Example Circus Train Jumbo, a 4.8-t elephant, is standing near one end of a 15-t railcar, which is at rest on a frictionless horizontal track. Jumbo walks 19 m toward the other end of the car. How far does the car move? 1 t = 1 tonne = 1000 kg Final distance of Jumbo from xc : Jumbo walks, but the center of mass doesn’t move (Fext = 0 ).

12 9.2. Momentum Total momentum: M constant 

13 Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Momentum: Total momentum of a system is a constant if there is no net external force.

14 GOT IT! 9.2. K.E. is not conserved.
A 500-g fireworks rocket is moving with velocity v = 60 j m/s at the instant it explodes. If you were to add the momentum vectors of all its fragments just after the explosion, what would you get? K.E. is not conserved. Emech = K.E. + P.E. grav is not conserved. Etot = Emech + Uchem is conserved.

15 Conceptual Example 9.1. Kayaking
Jess (mass 53 kg) & Nick (mass 72 kg) sit in a 26-kg kayak at rest on frictionless water. Jess toss a 17-kg pack, giving it a horizontal speed of 3.1 m/s relative to the water. What’s the kayak’s speed after Nick catches it? Why can you answer without doing any calculations ? Initially, total p = 0. frictionless water  p conserved After Nick catches it , total p = 0. Kayak speed = 0 Simple application of the conservation law.

16 Making the Connection Jess (mass 53 kg) & Nick (mass 72 kg) sit in a 26-kg kayak at rest on frictionless water. Jess toss a 17-kg pack, giving it a horizontal speed of 3.1 m/s relative to the water. What’s the kayak’s speed while the pack is in the air ? Initially While pack is in air: Note: Emech not conserved

17 Example 9.5. Radioactive Decay
A lithium-5 ( 5Li ) nucleus is moving at 1.6 Mm/s when it decays into a proton ( 1H, or p ) & an alpha particle ( 4He, or  ). [ Superscripts denote mass in AMU ]  is detected moving at 1.4 Mm/s at 33 to the original velocity of 5Li. What are the magnitude & direction of p’s velocity? Before decay: After decay:

18 Example 9.6. Fighting a Fire
A firefighter directs a stream of water to break the window of a burning building. The hose delivers water at a rate of 45 kg/s, hitting the window horizontally at 32 m/s. After hitting the window, the water drops horizontally. What horizontal force does the water exert on the window? Momentum transfer to a plane  stream: = Rate of momentum transfer to window = force exerted by water on window

19 GOT IT? 9.3. Two skaters toss a basketball back & forth on frictionless ice. Which of the following does not change: momentum of individual skater. momentum of basketball. momentum of the system consisting of one skater & the basketball. momentum of the system consisting of both skaters & the basketball.

20 Application: Rockets Thrust:

21 9.3. Kinetic Energy of a System

22 9.4. Collisions Examples of collision: Balls on pool table.
tennis rackets against balls. bat against baseball. asteroid against planet. particles in accelerators. galaxies spacecraft against planet ( gravity slingshot ) Characteristics of collision: Duration: brief. Effect: intense (all other external forces negligible )

23 Momentum in Collisions
External forces negligible  Total momentum conserved For an individual particle t = collision time impulse More accurately, Same size Average Crash test

24 Energy in Collisions Elastic collision: K conserved.
Inelastic collision: K not conserved. Bouncing ball: inelastic collision between ball & ground.

25 GOT IT? 9.4. Which of the following qualifies as a collision?
Of the collisions, which are nearly elastic & which inelastic? a basketball rebounds off the backboard. two magnets approach, their north poles facing; they repel & reverse direction without touching. a basket ball flies through the air on a parabolic trajectory. a truck crushed a parked car & the two slide off together. a snowball splats against a tree, leaving a lump of snow adhering to the bark. elastic elastic inelastic inelastic

26 9.5. Totally Inelastic Collisions
Totally inelastic collision: colliding objects stick together  maximum energy loss consistent with momentum conservation.

27 Example Hockey A Styrofoam chest at rest on frictionless ice is loaded with sand to give it a mass of 6.4 kg. A 160-g puck strikes & gets embedded in the chest, which moves off at 1.2 m/s. What is the puck’s speed?

28 Example Fusion Consider a fusion reaction of 2 deuterium nuclei 2H + 2H  4He . Initially, one of the 2H is moving at 3.5 Mm/s, the other at 1.8 Mm/s at a 64 angle to the 1st. Find the velocity of the Helium nucleus.

29 Example 9.9. Ballistic Pendulum
The ballistic pendulum measures the speeds of fast-moving objects. A bullet of mass m strikes a block of mass M and embeds itself in the latter. The block swings upward to a vertical distance of h. Find the bullet’s speed. Caution: (heat is generated when bullet strikes block)

30 9.6. Elastic Collisions Momentum conservation: Energy conservation: Implicit assumption: particles have no interaction when they are in the initial or final states. ( Ei = Ki ) 2-D case: number of unknowns = 2  2 = ( final state: v1fx , v1fy , v2fx , v2fy ) number of equations = 2 +1 = 3  1 more conditions needed. 3-D case: number of unknowns = 3  2 = 6 ( final state: v1fx , v1fy , v1fz , v2fx , v2fy , v2fz ) number of equations = 3 +1 = 4  2 more conditions needed.

31 Elastic Collisions in 1-D
1-D collision 1-D case: number of unknowns = 1  2 = ( v1f , v2f ) number of equations = 1 +1 = 2  unique solution. This is a 2-D collision

32 (a) m1 << m2 : (b) m1 = m2 : (c) m1 >> m2 :

33 Example 9.10. Nuclear Engineering
Moderator slows neutrons to induce fission. A common moderator is heavy water ( D2O ). Find the fraction of a neutron’s kinetic energy that’s transferred to an initially stationary D in a head-on elastic collision.

34 GOT IT? 9.5. One ball is at rest on a level floor.
Another ball collides elastically with it & they move off in the same direction separately. What can you conclude about the masses of the balls? 1st one is lighter.

35 Elastic Collision in 2-D
Impact parameter b : additional info necessary to fix the collision outcome.

36 Example Croquet A croquet ball strikes a stationary one of equal mass. The collision is elastic & the incident ball goes off 30 to its original direction. In what direction does the other ball move? p cons: E cons:

37 Center of Mass Frame

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