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Volleyball Rules & Mechanics Session

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1 Volleyball Rules & Mechanics Session

2 Intramural Volleyball Rules
Any rule not covered in intramural rules follows NFHS guidelines Team Requirements & Equipment 6 players: 4 minimum to start Co-Rec: combinations may include 3 men/3 women, 3 men/2 women, 3 men/2 women, 2 men/2 women No restrictions on amount of hits per gender Non-marking rubber-soled athletic shoes No jewelry (including rubber bands) or casts Please be MORE STRICT ABOUT THIS! Knee braces must have protective padding


4 The Game Coin Toss determines which team serves & sides
Team not serving 1st, will serve 1st in second game Whichever side teams were warming up will start on that side to start game Teams also switch sides between games Play all 3 games 1st Two games to 25 Win by 2 w/ 30 pt cap Last game to 15 Win by 2 w/ 20 pt cap Rally Scoring: Let Serve = Ball may hit the net and go over ON THE SERVE Score on every play regardless of team serving Point and team winning point gets to serve One time-out per game

5 Playing the Ball Maximum of 3 contacts
Exception: a block is not considered one of the contacts Contact is where a player intentionally or accidentally touches ball Cannot have contact below waist: dead ball – illegal hit Cannot use feet or legs to hit ball Illegal Hit: ball comes visibly to rest or prolonged contact w/ player Holding, catching, throwing, rolling, lifting, & pushing Penalty = point and side out for opposition

6 Playing the Ball cont’d
Double Hit: player illegally contacts ball twice in succession or ball rebounds from one body part to another on a single attempt to play ball Penalty: Point and side out for opposition Simultaneous contact by opponents The team side that the ball falls, the players have 3 hits to get ball over (simultaneous contact treat as a block) Held ball will direct a replay by the officials Net Play: ball contacting and crossing net shall remain in play provided contact is in playing area Side out for balls that do not go over the net

7 Playing the Ball cont’d
Net Foul (Penalty is point and side out for opposing team) Player contact any part of nets (including cables) Not a foul if hair touches net, or force of ball hit by opponent’s hit pushes net into a player Interference by player who makes contact w/ opponent who is making legitimate effort to play ball Center Line Foul: Play that has crossed their foot or body part completely over center-line For a Foul…the whole foot or whole body part must be over the line Can touch line with foot If player falls, any part of body that goes over the line is a fault Penalty is point and side out for opposition

8 Playing the Ball cont’d
Blocking the Ball A ball which is entirely on the opponent’s side of the net is permitted to be blocked when the opposing team has had an opportunity to complete its attack Includes when the team has used 3 contacts Team had opportunity to spike ball or in official’s judgment directs the ball w/ intent to return to opponent’s court Ball is falling near the net on attacking team side, and the officials feels no member of attacking team could make play on ball Watch for net fouls and contact below net (umpire) Look for follow through of spiker (referee) for net fouls

9 Back Line Attack Back Line player may attack ball if:
Leaves the floor from behind the 10 ft. line and its imaginary extension Any part of foot touches 10 ft. line: Foul and pt. for opposition Back line player may not attempt to block the ball in front of the 10 ft. line nor may they play the ball above the net (includes attacking or dinks).


11 Service Server must wait for official’s beckon/whistle (use preventative officiating & tell players to wait for whistle) Re-serve if they do not wait for beckon/whistle Side-out on 2nd consecutive serve w/ not beckon/whistle Any part of foot touches back row line on serve: Fault and pt. for opposition Serves may hit the net and go over (ball is in play) Balls that hit net and does not fall in non-serving teams’ court: illegal and point for non-serving team Server may not touch end line Server’s body may be in the air over lines, having left the floor from serving area Cannot hit ball with both hands Cannot step back into court until ball is hit

12 Service cont’d Serves landing on the line or inside court
Ball is in, whole ball has to land outside lines to be out Server has five seconds to make a legal serve May toss and catch bad toss, as long as no swinging motion has been made to attempt serve Only 1 re-serve for bad toss

13 Player positioning No player on court may be closer to sideline, end line or center line than adjacent player on court Front line player may not overlap with back-row players Players in front line cannot overlap each other side by side, nor can the back row After the ball has left the server’s hand for the serve, players may go anywhere on the court Cannot have more than 3 front-row players on the court during a rotation

14 Live Ball/Dead Ball Ball becomes live when legally contacted for service Ball becomes dead when: Ball touches antennas or any part of the net outside playing court Ball strikes the floor Ball contacts permanent object (excluding net) above or outside playing court Exception: Ball striking ceiling or overhead obstruction above playable area shall remain in play provided the ball contacts on the side of the net that occupied the ball Ball contacting track railing and stuck in the ceiling will be a point for the opposition Player commits a fault Served ball contacts but does not clear net Official’s whistle for any reason Point shall be replayed if a stray volleyball/basketball enters playing

15 Substitutions Unlimited number of substitutions
Substitutes must replace the server Team can only substitute at a dead ball

16 Communication Ask questions
Frequent eye contact between officials during the match Do not be afraid to call an official’s time out to collaborate with your partner Don’t do the easy thing and call replay Can ask players if unsure of line calls Always communicate the decisions with captains

17 Be consistent In ball handling violations
Carry for one team is carry for another Can instruct captain’s at meeting about open palm/carry, not serving 2 handed In determining unsportsmanlike conduct Treatment of both teams

18 Be confident Know your roles and responsibilities Sell the call
Move past your own/other’s criticisms Keep the match moving

19 Official’s Responsibilities

20 Duties of the referee Conduct the pre-match conference
Blow the whistle for serve and dead ball Recognize requests for substitution or time-out Make ball handling decisions Signal the result of each play or action/infraction Scan the court before beckoning for serve Make server foot fault calls Responsible for the alignment of the serving team Keep track of the number of hits by a team during play Signal the end of the game or the end of a time-out

21 Use of the whistle When to use whistle
to beckon teams into playing position for serve to signal any dead ball for time out and/or substitution when unrecognized by umpire re-serve or re-play end of game switching of sides of court end of match

22 Positioning Assume position on stand across from score table
During serve, no hand on net or cable. Can put hand on top of net after serve to indicate if there is a net fault during play

23 Coverage during play Concentrate on flight of ball at all times
Anticipate flight/interference with obstacles Anticipate next player to contact Illegal alignment on serving team Pre-serve scan of benches, teams, and umpire

24 Terms Let Serve: Ball Handling Prolonged Contact Double Hit
A legally served ball that contacts and crosses the net entirely between the antennas shall remain in play. Ball Handling Prolonged contact Double hit Below the waist Prolonged Contact Rolls Comes to rest Carried Double Hit Multiple contacts are permitted only on any first team hit, whether or not the ball is touched by the block Multiple contact on second or third hit is illegal

25 Referee can overrule Umpires Can Give Clues to the Head Officials of Calls that they may see (signal, but don’t blow whistle) Just because you make this discreet signal does not mean the referee will make that call. He/she may have seen something differently. These situations should be discussed after the game. Some officials, as umpire, prefer to blow the whistle and make the illegal back row player call. This should be discussed with your partner. Either way, the call should be made.


27 Signals Out: Hold forearms in front of chest, hands open, palms toward face Point: Indicate a #1 w/ index finger w/ the hand on side which won the point Begin Service: Extend one arm towards server, then blow whistle to serve & move arm overhead in a beckon motion In: extend one arm w/ an open hand palm down toward floor between attack line & net

28 Signals Illegal hit/carry: Slowly lift hand & forearm, palm up, on the side which violated Replay/play over: Fisted hands, w/ thumbs up, lift arms upward Illegal Back Row Attack: Raise hand beside head & rotate forearm forward and downward Illegal Alignment/Out of Rotation: Circular motion with entire hand

29 Prolonged Contact


31 Signals Double hit: Hand & arm nearest violating team raised, showing 2 fingers Four hits: Same as double hit but indicate 4 fingers Touch: Hand on offending teams’ side held beside head, palm toward head, brush upward across fingertips one time with other hand palm forward Net foul/serve: Hand of outstretched arm touches the side of the net where foul occurred



34 Signals Line violation: Indicate the line where the violation occurred by pointing down towards line Illegally Reaching over net Substitution: Bring both hands in front of face (traveling signal with open palms

35 Signals Change Sides: Raise forearms and swing right arm in front of body and left arm in back of body End of game: cross arms against chest Time-out: Raise arm up of team that indicates T/O and bring other arm up to form a “T” Verbally indicate time-out to both parties Official’s Time-out: Point at shoulders and indicate time-out

36 Signals Initiated by Umpire: Net violation Foot faults Substitutions
Time outs Illegal alignment on receiving team Authorization to enter (for substitution) End of the game signal

37 How to use Signals To stop play Sound whistle w/ authority
Signal the violation & hold the hand & arm signal long enough to be seen Signal point, side out, or replay Verbalize the decision when necessary Use the arm or hand on the side of the team involved


39 Umpire Responsibilities
When to use the whistle Do not repeat referee whistle Mirror signals made by the referee Make net fault calls Responsible for the net from the bottom of the top net cord to the ground Make center line foot fault calls Responsible for alignment of the receiving team Make back row attack and block calls for the receiving team Make ball handling calls when the referee is screened from the play Position yourself on the blocking team side of the net and transition to the other side before the 2nd team contact Alter your position as required to get a better look at the net Assist the referee in calling the match – Work as a team! Maintain eye contact with the R1 when echoing signals Do not hide behind the support when echoing signals

40 Umpire Duties Informal Signals
Given as discreet signal to referee – DO NOT BLOW THE WHISTLE HOLD your in/out call. Give it only if the referee asks for your help Ball handling calls out of the sight of the referee Down ball vs. pancake save Back-row player foul – this can be a delayed call Touches by the receiving team on a ball going out of bounds Four hits (discuss this with your partner before match)

41 Positioning Stand outside the sideline back from the standard When
On or just before the referee whistles for serve Position 1-2 meters back from standard 1-2 meters on side of receiving team Square to court Focus Receiving team Watching for Position faults Move to side opposite ball during play Move slightly to see alignment at time of serve Step back at each dead ball to facilitate visual contact with benches/coaches Anticipate trajectory of the ball an move to see in and out as ball crosses the net

42 Coverage during play At moment of serve When Position Focus
near net on receiving side listen for contact of serve watch for illegal alignment at moment of serve When On contact of serve Position 1-2 meters back from standard Slightly on side of receiving team Focus Blockers and the attack zone Watching for Net violations Illegal attacks or blocks Center line violations

43 Coverage during play Concentrate on center line and net area by first watching the floor, up to the net, touches on blocks, down the net and back to the floor Resist the temptation to follow the ball away from the net When After the set Position 1-2 meters back from standard Slightly on side of blocking team Focus Along the net Watching for Net violations Touches by blockers


45 During Attack Maintain a wide field of vision, observant to the play that is developing on both sides of the net. As play approaches net, your focus should be narrowing into the attack zones Look through the net to observe any possible back row attack violations-whistle a back row fault if you are sure that it has occurred. (This can also be signaled to referee discreetly.) As attack develops, narrow your focus down the net

46 DURING ATTACK (cont.) Focus along the net – primarily the top of the net Observe both teams. Look for net violations on the attackers touching the net on their follow-through. Look for net violations on blockers, primarily if they reach over net to execute their block Look for touches by blockers When As the attackers and blockers land Position 1-2 meters back from standard Slightly on side of blocking team Focus Along net and centerline Watching for Net violations Centerline violations

47 After the Attack Focus along the net & centerline as the players land
STAY FOCUSED ON THE NET as the ball is hit into the opponent’s court. Look for net violations Look for centerline violations Start your transition to the opposite side of the net as the serving team makes their transition for their attack. Move quickly and begin the routine again.

48 AFTER THE WHISTLE Focus along the net and through the attack zone to the referee Be aware of any trash talking going on after the rally If a ball going out of bounds was touched by a blocker, signal immediately Mimic the referee’s signals

49 Back Row Play Play continues when a back-row player (on or in front of the attack line), Contacts the ball, which is completely above the height of the net, On the teams’ first or second contact, Directing the flight of the ball toward a teammate, And the opponent legally contacts the ball that breaks the vertical plane of the net, play is legal. BUT, if the ball completely crosses the net untouched, it is a back-row player foul.

50 Back Row Play Same situation but…
The flight of the ball is toward the opponent’s court and not toward a teammate. And is legally touched by an opponent above the net, or completely crosses the net; It becomes a back-row player foul. The flight of the ball is the determining factor. The flight has to be toward a teammate.

51 Net Play A player shall not contact a ball that is completely on the opponent’s side of the net unless the contact is a legal block. When is a player considered “over the net”? Cannot take a play away from opponents A team must be given its 3 allowable hits

52 Checking alignment Receiving team
helpful hint - find a pair of diagonally opposite players, I.e. left front & right back, continually check on their position on the floor At the time of the serve All right-side players must have part of one foot closer to the right sideline than both feet of the center player in their corresponding row All left-side players must have part of one foot closer to the left sideline than both feet of the center player in their corresponding row All front row players must have part of one foot closer to the center line than both feet of their corresponding back row player Check primary setters if possible Moment of serve is critical time for alignment Track entering subs into proper positions

53 POINTS TO REMEMBER Always signal on the proper side of the net for any net violations and centerline violations. On any ball going out of bounds, make NO call, and only give it if the referee asks for your help. Proper position is the key to seeing and making the right call, so move quickly.

54 A player may block a ball that is completely on the opponent’s side of the net when:
Attacking team has had its 3 hits. In the official’s judgment, the attacking team has directed the ball toward the opponent’s court, as in a spike or drive from the backcourt. Ball is falling near the net, and no member of the attacking team can make a play on the ball. REMEMBER: It is never legal to attack a ball that is completely on the opponents’ side of the net

55 Proper Alignment RB RF, CB RF CF, RB CF CB, LF, RF LF LB, CF LB LF, CB

56 Players’ Positions at Time of Service

57 Illegal

58 Illegal

59 Legal

60 Legal

61 Illegal

62 Use of Penalty Cards Use preventative officiating first
Cards are cumulative in a match and carry over from previous games Officials do not have to issue a yellow card before issuing a red card or a red card before a disqualification R1 administers cards, R2 may request cards Remember that a yellow card is only a warning Use cards for unsportsmanlike conduct Use yellow cards for: Warning for minor offenses Use of illegal equipment Player attempting to grandstand/showboat

63 Use of Penalty Cards cont
Use Red Cards for: Serious misconduct Swearing Taunting an opponent Repeat offenses that have already received a yellow card Disqualification should occur when: A player or coach commits a second serious offense or third minor offense Fighting Injuring another player intentionally Degree of offense and level of card (yellow vs. red vs. yellow/red) is at the discretion of the R1 and is not subject to protest

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