Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Motor Learning and Control"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Motor Learning and Control Chapter 1
2 How do people acquire motor skills? Motor learning is the study of the processes people go through as they acquire and refine motor skills. One must also consider the variables that promote or inhibit the acquisition of these skills.What variables might promote or inhibit acquisition?
3 Once acquired, what is motor control? Motor control is the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of human movementDoes the brain integrate all sensory messages?Does arousal influence performance?Why do we sometimes forget how to do something?Why do we know how to do something even when we haven’t done it in a long time?
4 How do people move?Movement is the function of the interaction of three elements:The learnerThe taskThe environment
5 Foundational knowledge LearnerDo they possess underlying abilities to perform?Is the task developmentally appropriate?Were there previous similar experiences?Are they motivated?Might individual differences influence acquisition of this task?
6 Foundational Knowledge TaskIs there a high perceptual component to the task?Is object manipulation required?What body movements are required?Must the task be performed under a variety of conditions or under the same condition each time?
7 Foundational Knowledge EnvironmentIn what context will the task be performed?Is that context predictable or unpredictable?Is there a time limitation?When assessing performance and making instructional decisions, you must remember that none of these elements exists in isolation
8 What is learning?Learning is a relatively permanent change in a person’s ability to execute a motor skill as a result of practice or experience doing the skillWe can’t see learning because the internal processes can’t be directly observedSo how does a facilitator of learning know if the client/athlete/student learned?
9 Role of performance in learning While we can’t see learning, we can see performancePerformance is the execution of a skillThrough repeated observations of a person’s performance, we infer whether a person has learned a skillInferences must be based on changes that occur over time
10 Inferences must be accurate If a person is anxious, tired, experiencing equipment problems, does impaired performance mean a loss of capability to do the skill?Could a person be ‘ON’ one day during practice, and then revert back to previous levels of ability the next time out?
11 Practical Application Nondominant hand jugglingTwo tennis balls in nondominant handToss upward and when reaches peak, toss second tennis ball; catch first, then toss, catch second then tossContinue this pattern for 10 minutesRecord the highest number of successful catches you make
12 QuestionsCan you conclude that you learned how to juggle two tennis balls with your non-dominant hand? Why?/ Why not?If up until the 9 minute mark you only caught the ball twice, then you suddenly caught 6, does that mean you learned how to juggle? Why? / Why not?What is learning?What learner, task and environmental factors affected your performance and learning?Answers to these questions due on Friday
13 Motor Skill Goal-oriented Body and limb movements required to accomplish goalVoluntaryMust be learned or re-learned
14 Which are motor skills? Grasping a bottled water Keyboarding Drawing back after touching a hot ironSewing a buttonPlaying the drumsThe startle reflex
15 Ways to classify motor skills Identify skill characteristics that are similarDivide into two categories, which represent extreme ends of a continuumOne dimensional systemsSize of primary musculature required; precision of movementNature of movement organization; Specificity of where actions begin or endPredictability/ Stability of the environment
16 Precision of Movement Fine motor skill Gross motor skill Involving very precise movements normally accomplished using smaller musculatureGross motor skillPlaces less emphasis on precision and is typically the result of multi-limb movements
18 Nature of Movement Organization DiscreteBeginning and end points are clearly definedSerialComposed of a number of discrete skills whose integrated performance is crucial for goal achievementContinuousBeginning and ending points are arbitrary
20 Open/closed classification system Closed skillEnvironmental context is stable & predictable (does not change from trial to trial)Consistency is the objectiveTechnique refinement is emphasizedOpen skillPerformer must adapt performance to the ever changing environmentPractice should emphasize responding to the changing demands
21 Classify the following motor skills CLOSED………………….TO……………….OPENUnpredictablePredictableSemi-PredictableWalking a tightropeMowing the lawnDownhill skiingSwimming in a poolPlaying a video gameTypingCrossing the street
22 Gentile’s Multidimensional Classification System Environmental demandsRegulatory conditionsEnvironmental factors that specify the movement characteristics necessary to successfully perform a skillIs the environmental context stable or in motion?Swimming in an empty pool lane vs. playing water poloFrom trial to trial, do the regulatory conditions remain fixed or do they change?Does a pitched ball come in high and inside, then low and away? Or down the middle with a pitching machine?
23 Gentile’s Multidimensional Classification System Action requirementsIs the performer required to change locations or maintain body position when performing the skill?Does the task require the performer to manipulate an object or opponent or not?
24 Task Examples for Gentile’s Multidimensional System
25 How to apply this classification system When you know the level of complexity of a skill, you can design learning experiences that build from simple to more complexUltimately, you lead to practice conditions that simulate the conditions under which the skill will be performed
26 Practical Application Determine a progression of learning experiences from simple to more complex within your area of study.
27 Because each learner is unique, not all instructional strategies are effective for all learners
28 Individual Differences Individual differences are relatively stable and enduring characteristics that make each of us uniqueExamples:Body configurationPhysiological make-upLearning stylesType and amount of previous movement experienceDevelopmental levelCultural backgroundPsychological make-up
29 AbilitiesGenetic traits that are prerequisite to the development of skill proficiencyExistence of a single, general motor ability?Can a person be born an ‘all around athlete’?Specificity hypothesis?Do we develop specific abilities rather than all around abilities? Research does not support a single, general motor ability
30 Fleishman’s TaxonomyGroups motor abilities into two categories of fundamental abilities:Perceptual motor abilitiesPhysical proficiency abilitiesThese abilities are stable and genetically determined
31 Perceptual Motor Abilities Control precisionMulti-limb coordinationResponse orientationReaction timeSpeed of limb movementRate controlManual dexterityFinger dexterityArm-hand steadinessWrist finger speedAiming
32 Physical Proficiency Abilities Static strengthDynamic strengthExplosive strengthTrunk strengthExtent flexibilityDynamic flexibilityGross body coordinationGross body equilibriumStamina
33 Thinking about your abilities List three movement activities for which you feel particularly skilled.What abilities do you think you possess that allow you to perform these skills so well?Are any of these abilities important to the performance of more than one of the tasks listed?See abilities on pp. 13 & 14
34 Motor AbilitiesPeople tend to perform motor tasks well according to their motor abilitiesAbilities limit the ultimate level of performance proficiency of an individualFor example, body type will influence the ability to become an elite sprinter or a sprinter ‘wanna be’However, avoid making final judgement on a person in early stages of practice. As experience and practice increase, performers may become more successful at using their underlying abilities to become more skilled
35 What should practitioners remember about abilities? We should expect to see differences in patterns of abilitiesWe should identify patterns before providing instructional assistanceOne tennis player may demonstrate more consistent contact with ball while another player may cover the court betterAbilities of player one? Abilities of player two?
36 What should practitioners remember about abilities? Create practice opportunities that challenge the person to work on those aspects of performance for which their abilities are not well suitedThe challenge will come when the performer must work on their weakness, when they would rather work on things they do well
37 What should practitioners remember about abilities? Abilities are not the only contributing factorPrevious experiencesBody configurationPersonal characteristicsPerformance success will most likely result from a combination of factors: abilities, age, experience, practice, motivation, mood
38 A way to use abilities in motor performance Task analysis approach to determine which movement components to emphasize during instruction
39 Task AnalysisThe breaking down of a skill into its component parts and corresponding underlying abilitiesThrough task analysis, we can understand skill requirements betterThen we can identify a learner’s strengths and weaknesses and modify instruction to help them acquire the skill
41 Practical Application For a skill of your choice, perform a task analysis to determine the critical elements of the task and the underlying abilities required for proficient performanceHow would you use this information to design learning experiences?
42 Summary on abilities People differ in their abilities Research supports fundamental abilitiesThere exists a number of independent fundamental abilitiesDifferent combinations of these abilities underly motor performanceSome abilities play dominant roles in task performance while others are secondarySome abilities may be important for a number of different tasks
43 Putting it all together Practitioners can:Perform a task analysis to determine the requirements of a taskThen identify the important abilities necessary to meet the requirementsDesign learning experiences to capitalize on strengths and practice activities to work on their weaknessesLook at progression of skills according to the skill classification systems for appropriate difficulty
44 Practical Application A frequent challenge is finding ways to assist people who must compensate for deficiencies in their abilities when they are learning or relearning a skill. What factors might be considered to assist each of the following?A 10 year old who consistently misses a pitched ballA 60 year old with paralysis of the preferred hand caused by stroke who is trying to relearn the task of opening a bottle of wineA 30 year old with a loss of vision in one eye who is trying to learn how to play a musical keyboard
45 Exit Slip What is the relationship between learning and performance? Briefly summarize each classification system.What role do motor abilities play in individual performance?What factors should practitioners be aware of when trying to predict someone’s future performance success?