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**Probability & Genetics**

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**Genetics & Probability**

Mendel’s laws: segregation independent assortment reflect same laws of probability that apply to tossing coins or rolling dice

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**Probability & genetics**

Calculating probability of making a specific gamete is just like calculating the probability in flipping a coin probability of tossing heads? probability making a B gamete? BB B 100% Bb B b 50%

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**Probability & genetics**

Outcome of 1 toss has no impact on the outcome of the next toss probability of tossing heads each time? probability making a B gamete each time? 50% Bb B b 50%

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**Calculating probability**

Pp x Pp sperm egg offspring P PP 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4 P p male / sperm P p Pp 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4 + P p female / eggs p P PP Pp 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4 1/2 Pp pp p pp 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4

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**Rule of multiplication**

Chance that 2 or more independent events will occur together probability that 2 coins tossed at the same time will land heads up probability of Pp x Pp pp 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4 Pp P p 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4

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**Calculating probability in crosses**

Use rule of multiplication to predict crosses YyRr YyRr x Yy x Rr x yyrr 1/16 ?% yy rr 1/4 1/4 x

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**Apply the Rule of Multiplication**

AABbccDdEEFf x AaBbccDdeeFf AabbccDdEeFF AA x Aa Aa 1/2 Bb x Bb bb 1/4 Got it? Try this! cc x cc cc 1 Dd x Dd Dd 1/2 EE x ee Ee 1 1/64 Ff x Ff FF 1/4

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Rule of addition Chance that an event can occur 2 or more different ways sum of the separate probabilities probability of Bb x Bb Bb sperm egg offspring B b Bb 1/4 + 1/2 1/2 = x 1/4 b B Bb 1/2 = x 1/4

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**Chi-square test Test to see if your data supports your hypothesis**

Compare “observed” vs. “expected” data is variance from expected due to “random chance”? or is there another factor influencing data? null hypothesis degrees of freedom statistical significance

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Any Questions??

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