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Urban Landscape Notes to Handouts (08-09 version).

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1 Urban Landscape Notes to Handouts (08-09 version)

2 I. What is a settlement?  I. The ‘ what ’ and ‘ where ’ of settlements - site, location (situation), size, form, structure, morphology, function, quality of environment, households, people and interaction

3 II. Types of settlements  What is an urban settlement ? How is it different from a rural settlement ? a. Functional definition of urban settlement b. Statistical definition of urban settlement - Why is it difficult to set a universal minimum size of an urban settlement? - Refer to ‘ Urban Data 2008 ’ - Refer to T.B. p.388-389, 392-397, 516-517

4 Comparing north & south in the USA Not all types of society will develop an urban structure. There was, for a long period, a marked contrast between the economies of the northern & southern regions of the young USA.

5 II. Types of settlements - Settlement patterns: Causes of dispersion and nucleation : T.B. p.397 Nearest neighbour analysis: T.B. p.402-404 Interaction / gravity models: T.B. p.410-411

6 III. Urban Processes  Urban growth - trends and distribution (refer to fact notes ‘ Urban Data 2008 ’, T.B. p.418-419)  Urbanization - it is not simply a matter of an increasing % of people living in towns and cities - it is a multi-dimenstional process involving: physical, economic, social and demographic changes (refer to notes p. 3)

7 III. Urban Processes  Urbanization - On demographic level, urbanization involves two processes: (1) natural increase (2) migration (with push and pull factors)

8 The average size of the world ’ s 100 largest cities, 1800-2000  The growth of large urban areas (cities) has been especially notable over the last 50 years.

9 World mega-cities  The recent feature of urbanization: the emergence of mega-cities with populations of over 5 million.

10 III. Urban Processes  Urbanization - The rate of natural increase in cities are often significantly higher than those in more rural areas. Why? (1) Higher fertility rate in urban areas due to a low age profile (2) Which is often the result of migration, esp. rural-urban migration (highly selective) – do ex.

11 III. Urban Processes  What are the processes and features of urbanization? (notes p.3)  How did the % of the worlds ’ urban population change with time? (notes p.3 & ‘ Urban Data 2008)

12 III. Urban Processes  The proportion of world population living in urban areas (notes p.4)  Proportion by different continents

13 No. of cities with > 1 million people, 1800-2000 Region1800190019502000 Africa 00034 Asia 1326136 Europe 193061 Latin America 00739 North America 041436 Oceania 0025 Total 21681311 Source: Advanced Geography Edexcel (A), 2005, p. 461

14 Distribution of the world ’ s100 largest cities, 1800-2000 Region1800190019502000 Africa 4236 Asia 64233244 Europe 29513719 Latin America 35816 North America 0161813 Oceania 0222 Total 10099100 Source: Advanced Geography Edexcel (A), 2005, p. 461

15 Urbanization in the developed countries  1. The invention of agricultural machinery  2. Improvement in transport  3. Development of new manufacturing industries  4. Attractiveness of urban life

16 Counter-urbanization  It is a trend that involves the movement of people and enterprises out of urban areas to more rural areas.  The trend experienced by UK after 1950s: - 1. improved transport - 2. a decline in the heavy industries which had been concentrated in a few areas - 3. a greater development of services which favoured edge-of-city environments

17 Reurbanization since 1980s  the return of people to the cities is directional in nature  with majority of movement happens in the inner cities  which formerly suffer from dereliction and unemployment  the scale of return is large and impose an obvious effect within the city, both positive and negative  the return is particularly significant in large cities, especially global cities in MEDCs  where population has grown rapidly

18 Reurbanization in most MEDC cities in the 1990s  the recognition of an urgent need to revive & redevelop flagging city / central city areas  a response to the changing world economy: globalization  effect of switching employment structure, from manufacturing industry to service industry  the derelict part of the cities, mainly the inner part, usu. captures the awareness of the government

19 Reurbanization in most MEDC cities in the 1990s  major aims : to stop the loss of population & employment, improve housing stock and upgrade the city image  ultimate goal : to attract the mobile, global investment

20 case study in UK (1) - Birmingham  the principal area of development: - the derelict areas in the NE part of the city  Heartlands initiative: - developing office space within the city  other city projects : - building an international convention centre, national indoor arena, etc.  aiming at the creation of a safe, profitable and pleasure environment  through ‘ growth coalition ’, several flagship schemes have been promoted.

21 case study in UK (2) - Nottingham  revival of the past textile centre into an important centre for financial & business  pulling down small workshops to create more office space and space for houses  renovation of the historic Lace Market  redevelopment of the Borad Marsh and Trinity Square shopping areas, crating a further 77 000 sq. metre for retail space  further investment on key city centre sites  dev ’ t of national & international sports facilities – the National Ice Centre, the National Water Sports Centre & the Nottingham International Tennis Centre

22 Urbanization in the less developed countries  in the stage of concurrent urban growth & urbanization  impacts under the withdrawal of the colonial administration  ‘ over-urbanization ’  ‘ pseudo-urbanization ’  other factors for the rapid process (notes p.6)  a case study of China (notes p.6)

23 Urban and rural population, 1950-2030  With projected values to 2030

24 Think about it  What about the recent trend and prediction of China ’ s urbanization?  What are the driving force of rural-urban migration in China?

25 Urbanization in China  Total population at the end of 2006: 1.3 billion,  with 737 million (56%) and 577 million (44%) residing in the rural and urban areas respectively.  About 94% of population lives on approximately 46% of land.  Recent trend: the decreasing rural population and increasing urban population; moving industry and economic activities from the rural to urban areas as the main focus  The UN forecast: By 2015, China's rural and urban population will be about 50% vs 50% ] ]  In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization: by 2035 – the level of urbanization will reach 70% Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

26 3 driving forces for China ’ s rural-urban migration  1. the widening income gap between rural & urban areas  2. the increasing labour demand in centain economic sectors of the big cities e.g. construction, electronics & textiles, services  3. the further agricultural modernization & therefore the agricultural labour surplus Source: rend_30.htm

27 Recommended Reference:  Rural-urban Migration in China: Recent Trend and Future Challenges

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