Presentation on theme: "Urban Landscape Notes to Handouts (08-09 version)."— Presentation transcript:
Urban Landscape Notes to Handouts (08-09 version)
I. What is a settlement? I. The ‘ what ’ and ‘ where ’ of settlements - site, location (situation), size, form, structure, morphology, function, quality of environment, households, people and interaction
II. Types of settlements What is an urban settlement ? How is it different from a rural settlement ? a. Functional definition of urban settlement b. Statistical definition of urban settlement - Why is it difficult to set a universal minimum size of an urban settlement? - Refer to ‘ Urban Data 2008 ’ - Refer to T.B. p.388-389, 392-397, 516-517
Comparing north & south in the USA Not all types of society will develop an urban structure. There was, for a long period, a marked contrast between the economies of the northern & southern regions of the young USA.
II. Types of settlements - Settlement patterns: Causes of dispersion and nucleation : T.B. p.397 Nearest neighbour analysis: T.B. p.402-404 Interaction / gravity models: T.B. p.410-411
III. Urban Processes Urban growth - trends and distribution (refer to fact notes ‘ Urban Data 2008 ’, T.B. p.418-419) Urbanization - it is not simply a matter of an increasing % of people living in towns and cities - it is a multi-dimenstional process involving: physical, economic, social and demographic changes (refer to notes p. 3)
III. Urban Processes Urbanization - On demographic level, urbanization involves two processes: (1) natural increase (2) migration (with push and pull factors)
The average size of the world ’ s 100 largest cities, 1800-2000 The growth of large urban areas (cities) has been especially notable over the last 50 years.
World mega-cities The recent feature of urbanization: the emergence of mega-cities with populations of over 5 million.
III. Urban Processes Urbanization - The rate of natural increase in cities are often significantly higher than those in more rural areas. Why? (1) Higher fertility rate in urban areas due to a low age profile (2) Which is often the result of migration, esp. rural-urban migration (highly selective) – do ex.
III. Urban Processes What are the processes and features of urbanization? (notes p.3) How did the % of the worlds ’ urban population change with time? (notes p.3 & ‘ Urban Data 2008)
III. Urban Processes The proportion of world population living in urban areas (notes p.4) Proportion by different continents
No. of cities with > 1 million people, 1800-2000 Region1800190019502000 Africa 00034 Asia 1326136 Europe 193061 Latin America 00739 North America 041436 Oceania 0025 Total 21681311 Source: Advanced Geography Edexcel (A), 2005, p. 461
Distribution of the world ’ s100 largest cities, 1800-2000 Region1800190019502000 Africa 4236 Asia 64233244 Europe 29513719 Latin America 35816 North America 0161813 Oceania 0222 Total 10099100 Source: Advanced Geography Edexcel (A), 2005, p. 461
Urbanization in the developed countries 1. The invention of agricultural machinery 2. Improvement in transport 3. Development of new manufacturing industries 4. Attractiveness of urban life
Counter-urbanization It is a trend that involves the movement of people and enterprises out of urban areas to more rural areas. The trend experienced by UK after 1950s: - 1. improved transport - 2. a decline in the heavy industries which had been concentrated in a few areas - 3. a greater development of services which favoured edge-of-city environments
Reurbanization since 1980s the return of people to the cities is directional in nature with majority of movement happens in the inner cities which formerly suffer from dereliction and unemployment the scale of return is large and impose an obvious effect within the city, both positive and negative the return is particularly significant in large cities, especially global cities in MEDCs where population has grown rapidly
Reurbanization in most MEDC cities in the 1990s the recognition of an urgent need to revive & redevelop flagging city / central city areas a response to the changing world economy: globalization effect of switching employment structure, from manufacturing industry to service industry the derelict part of the cities, mainly the inner part, usu. captures the awareness of the government
Reurbanization in most MEDC cities in the 1990s major aims : to stop the loss of population & employment, improve housing stock and upgrade the city image ultimate goal : to attract the mobile, global investment
case study in UK (1) - Birmingham the principal area of development: - the derelict areas in the NE part of the city Heartlands initiative: - developing office space within the city other city projects : - building an international convention centre, national indoor arena, etc. aiming at the creation of a safe, profitable and pleasure environment through ‘ growth coalition ’, several flagship schemes have been promoted.
case study in UK (2) - Nottingham revival of the past textile centre into an important centre for financial & business pulling down small workshops to create more office space and space for houses renovation of the historic Lace Market redevelopment of the Borad Marsh and Trinity Square shopping areas, crating a further 77 000 sq. metre for retail space further investment on key city centre sites dev ’ t of national & international sports facilities – the National Ice Centre, the National Water Sports Centre & the Nottingham International Tennis Centre
Urbanization in the less developed countries in the stage of concurrent urban growth & urbanization impacts under the withdrawal of the colonial administration ‘ over-urbanization ’ ‘ pseudo-urbanization ’ other factors for the rapid process (notes p.6) a case study of China (notes p.6)
Urban and rural population, 1950-2030 With projected values to 2030
Think about it What about the recent trend and prediction of China ’ s urbanization? What are the driving force of rural-urban migration in China?
Urbanization in China Total population at the end of 2006: 1.3 billion, with 737 million (56%) and 577 million (44%) residing in the rural and urban areas respectively. About 94% of population lives on approximately 46% of land. Recent trend: the decreasing rural population and increasing urban population; moving industry and economic activities from the rural to urban areas as the main focus The UN forecast: By 2015, China's rural and urban population will be about 50% vs 50% ] ] In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization: by 2035 – the level of urbanization will reach 70% Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
3 driving forces for China ’ s rural-urban migration 1. the widening income gap between rural & urban areas 2. the increasing labour demand in centain economic sectors of the big cities e.g. construction, electronics & textiles, services 3. the further agricultural modernization & therefore the agricultural labour surplus Source: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/argu/trends/t rend_30.htm
Recommended Reference: Rural-urban Migration in China: Recent Trend and Future Challenges