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Renaissance Politics in Northern Europe By Loose & Dyson 9/5/2012 AP European History.

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1 Renaissance Politics in Northern Europe By Loose & Dyson 9/5/2012 AP European History

2 English Politics England adapted a national monarchy It was a sin against God to not support the King wherever rulers claimed to rule by "Divine Right." (And in England, the King was also the head of the Anglican Church.)

3 Difference from Middle Ages New monarchies New commoners section of Parliament ▫Peasants actually had a voice No tax for the middle class

4 New Monarchies At the start of the Renaissance, new monarchies started forming ▫Mainly in Western Europe (ex. France, Spain, England) Decisions were made by the king and exercised through his agents apply to whole state

5 German Politics Religious split was influenced by the political situation ▫Various princes had been fighting the Emperor for many years

6 French Politics Charles VII (r –1461) –Used a royal council made up of middle class men –Permanent professional army –Removed the English from France Taxes: –Gabelle-tax on salt instituted to raise money –Taille–a tax on the peasant’s land –King did not use the Estates General to tax people after 1484 –these two taxes gave him enough money

7 Charles I of Spain (r ) Problems: Protestant Reformation in Germany Dynastic conflict with Francis I of France, particularly for supremacy in Italy Ottoman Turks, then at the height of their power. He also had difficulties with his Spanish subjects, who at first regarded him as a foreigner. Successes: Promoting the Catholic Reformation Imperialist struggle with France Conquest of Mexico and Peru

8 Henry VIII (r ) Did not: ▫use Parliament to collect funds ▫tax the middle class ▫keep a standing army Did: ▫improve the court systems ▫use middle class as his chief ministers ▫led England to prosperity and peace

9 Works Cited ani/cs6/ren.htmlhttp://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/mel ani/cs6/ren.html mation/reformation-01.jsphttp://worldhistory.knowledge4africa.com/refor mation/reformation-01.jsp euro/renaissance/ap_renaissance_politics.pdfhttp://www.darienps.org/teachers/grsmith/ap_ euro/renaissance/ap_renaissance_politics.pdf

10 Literature of the Northern Rennaissance Zack Funk

11 William Shakespeare

12 The Immortal Bard (bio) Born in 1564 during the Elizabethan era I.E. the time that was considered a peak of English patriotism and radical advances in thinking after the defeat of the Spanish Armada PLAGIARISED many of his plots from earlier works Works now the most quoted in the English language, other than the books of the Bible

13 Relation to the Northern Rennaisance Works such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Othello are based almost purely upon human tendencies and emotions. (entirely unheard of subject matter until this era) “Shakespearean Language” refers to the poetic license with diction and syntax that characterizes his works. Terms such as “doth”, “thou”, “prithee”, “woo”, and “O’er”, etc- all revolutionized poetic language. Iambic Pentameter "Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,....” Plays performed across the English Isle (first theatre was the Globe)

14 Miguel de Cervantes

15 Bio Spaniard Born 1547 Born to a noble family; faced hardship after father imprisoned for debts Enlisted as a soldier By this time, knighthood and feudalism had been phased out of society

16 The Tale of Don Quixote "the knight of the woeful countenance,” "lean, lank, meagre, drooping, sharp- backed, and raw-boned…” steed. These descriptions highlight the extended paradoxical, metaphor that not only ridiculed the ways of old (when such traditions were to be practiced in his modern era), but also served to illustrate the writer’s own trials, tribulations, and difficulties in life.

17 Bibliography Man Is The Measure. N.p.: n.p., Chapter 12. Web. 4 Sept Blocher, Laura. Shakespearean Language. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept Cervantes, Miguel. Don Quixote. N.p.: n.p., Web. 4 Sept Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept Shakespeare, William. Othello. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept Web. 4 Sept http://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/shakespeare/r&j5.html fabmoraes.cgsociety.org Web. 4 Sept

18 Women in the Northern Renaissance Kayla Clark and Courtney Hart

19 How It Got Started The Italian Renaissance spread to the rest of Europe and created the Northern Renaissance. The main countries of the Northern Renaissance included England, Germany, Switzerland and France. Northern Europe began recovering economically from the Black Death. The population of Northern Europe started to grow back in 1450.

20 Women’s Reforms Christine de Pizan fought for women’s education. ▫Many Europeans could not read or write. ▫Wealthy families sent only their sons to school. ▫Pizan was highly educated and the first woman to become a successful writer. ▫Best known for defending women.

21 The Book of The City of Ladies The book creates an imaginary city of women. Pizan argues that women have been viewed unfairly. The city is still prosperous despite the lack of men.

22 Overview Women were inferior to their husbands. They could own property, but could not sell without authorization. Boys were valued more than girls. Poor families would abandon young girls. Girls were considered expensive because of the dowry to marry them off.

23 Role of Women Primarily to serve their father and husband. They were not meant to be successful on their own. Their father’s had the final decision on their future and whether they would marry. The feelings of women were not highly regarded.

24 Marriage A woman would inherit her husband’s property when he died. It was proper to pass the property on to a son. She was under pressure by society to marry again. It was not the norm for a woman to be in charge of the household.

25 Marriage Continued The wife’s social status was controlled by the husband. The dowry could buy the woman a man with a higher rank in society. When a woman married, her “ownership” shifted from that of her father to her new husband. It was easier to divorce a non-religious man.

26 Contrasting Views on Women Thomas Aquinas ▫Viewed women as unimportant. ▫Created only to be a sex object.

27 Contrasting Views Continued Martin Luther ▫Argued that women were important. ▫Played an important role in raising the children and keeping the home tidy.

28 Different Types of Women A noble woman had more power to govern her household. A woman married to an artisan would help him run his business. Peasant women worked throughout their pregnancy and were expected to return to work soon after giving birth.

29 Education College study was not an option for women. They were considered intellectually inferior to men. They could not have a profession.

30 Working Women Some women had to work due to money issues. Low wages. Jobs included spinning, weaving or clothing production.

31 How Women Relate to Regions Certain regions of The Holy Roman Empire valued women more than others. Regions close to the Mediterranean had poor views of women. Regions in the territories of Germany considered women more important with the success of the community.

32 Birth Rates Started to decline Rumored to have been a form of contraception Oral herbal medicines that could limit fertility

33 Witchcraft The witch hunt was strong in Europe during the Northern Renaissance. Witches were tortured until they confessed. Faced severe punishments. “Witches” by Hans Baldung Grien.

34 A Contrast- Women of the Middle Ages They were expected to obey men. If they failed to obey men, they were beaten and accused of committing a crime against their religion.

35 Women of the Middle Ages Continued They did receive an education. It was not school related. They learned how to maintain a household. Essentially, it was not to their benefit.

36 Women of the Middle Ages Continued Women were often sent to live with a noble family. They would learn etiquette and how to properly maintain a residence. Marriages were arranged. They had no say in the man they married.

37 “Did Women Have A Renaissance?” Joan Kelly ▫Historian, lecturer, professor. ▫Challenged the Renaissance. ▫She thought the power of women disintegrated during this period. ▫Kelly said the Renaissance created something that is still present today: women’s dependency on men. “Did Women Have A Renaissance?” was published in 1977.

38 Do you think the Renaissance has affected women in society to this day?

39 Sources nce_and_Northern_Renaissance.htmhttp://www.historydoctor.net/Advanced%20Placement%20European%20History/Notes/social_change_at_the_time_of_the_Renaissa nce_and_Northern_Renaissance.htm

40 Sources  "AP European History." - 15th Century. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept  "The Northern Renaissance." Euro-webonline.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  Wagner, Jill E. Christine De Pizan's City of Ladies: A Monumental (Re)construction Of, By, and for Women of All Time. Digital image. Medievalists.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  "The Book of the City of Ladies." N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept  "Social Changes at the Time of the Renaissance." Historydoctor.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  "Women's Status in Europe, 1500 to 1700." Women's Status in Europe, 1500 to N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept  Thomas Aquinas. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  Cranach, Lucas. Germany Holidays: Martin Luther. Digital image. Wunderban! N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  "Middle Ages Women." Middle Ages Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept  Du Pre Argent, Cynthia. Some Related Headdresses of the 15th Century:theories on Construction. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  Create Seperate Clothing Styles for Work and Socializing. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  The Holy Roman Empire map. Digital image. The Judgement. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  "A Short History of Witchcraft." A Short History of Witchcraft. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept  Anguissola, Sofonisba. The Northern Renaissance. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  Grien, Hans Baldung. Witches. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  Eyck, Jan Van. Arnolfini Wedding, Digital image. The Northern Renaissance. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept  "Did Women's Roles Change Dramatically during the Renaissance and the Reformation?" Yahoo! Answers. Yahoo!, n.d. Web. 04 Sept  Boursse, Esaias. Interior with and Old Woman at a Spinning Wheel Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept Joan Kelly Collaborative Law Vs Mediation Mediatecom Video." World News. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept

41 PAINTING OF THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE BY ARIANA MIRAGLIA AND HARRISON HOLTSLANDER PERIOD 6

42 Relating to the Time Period

43 The biggest separating factors of the Renaissance and the Middle Ages were the decline of the Feudalism System and the rise of the Humanism movement….

44 Relating to the Time Period The dwindling of the feudalism* system had a great impact on the art of Europe. This, in turn, also had an impact on the Catholic church. Although that was a bigger problem for Italy, it is important to note that it brought upon Humanism. The idea of Humanism* started in Italy and eventually spread to Northern Europe. Feudalism: a system that structures society around rank determined by the holding of land in exchange for labor. Humanism: a system of thinking where the prime importance is to the human rather to a supernatural or godly being

45 HOWEVER. Northern European Renaissance art and Middle Ages art were more similar than you may think….

46 Example of Medieval Art The Book Of Kells Late 8 th Century Illuminated Manuscript Iona, Scotland

47 Example of Northern European Art These images were dated to the Northern European renaissance. Both are illuminated manuscripts that share similar qualities to those of the previous Medieval images.

48 Relating to the Region

49 At the time, Italy was dominant in the art aspect of Europe. Northern European artists were prominent- but there were less of them and harder to find. Their art, however, took on different forms than the Italian. Some forms include illuminated manuscripts, tapestries, and furnishings. (similar to Middle Ages) In terms of wealth, Burgundy (located around modern day Belgium) was in close comparison to Italy’s Florence. Burgundy Dukes were great patrons of art and were the artist’s biggest financial suppliers.

50 Relating to the Region Also different from Italy, the Northern European Artists took more attention to how the picture looked like rather than the scientific accuracy behind it. Color and detail were essential in northern painting unlike in Italy. The more the better!

51 COMPARISON BETWEEN ITALIAN AND NORTHERN EUROPEAN The Vitruvian Man: Leonardo Da Vinci Italian Renaissance Focuses on anatomical structure of the man entirely. Not much color or detail was added. The Arnolfini Marriage Jan Van Eyck Northern European Renaissance There is much detail, includes many colors, and many objects of symbolism.

52 Jan van Eyck Developed oil painting techniques ▫Glazing ▫Oil paints became more popular

53 Arnolfini Marriage Portrait

54 Limbourg Brothers The Book of Hours ( ) ▫Illuminated manuscript ▫Calendar pages

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56 Rogier van der Weyden Deposition (1435) ▫Most famous ▫Intense emotion ▫Detail

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59 van Eyck, Jan. The Madonna with Canon van der Paele. Web. 5 Sept va,. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept van Eyck, Jan. Arnolfini Marriage. Web. 5 Sept Limbourg,. The Book of Hours. Web. 5 Sept van der Weyden, Rogier. Deposition. Web. 5 Sept Web. 5 Sept History World. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept

60 Sculptures in Northern Europe: The Renaissance By: Brittney Rangel

61 What is the Northern Renaissance? The Northern Renaissance is acknowledged to be “Renaissance happenings that occurred within Europe, but outside of Italy.” The most innovative art came from France, the Netherlands, and Germany. ▫Northern states

62 Europe in Crisis Through the 14 th century, much of Europe was in crisis. ▫Earlier prosperity had fostered population growth  By 1300 had begun to exceed food production. ▫Series of bad harvests meant famines became increasingly common. ▫The Hundred Years War was ongoing.

63 Europe in Crisis ▫The Black Death swept across Europe, wiping out 40% of the population.  Depleting the labor force.  Increased leveraged over their landlords  Increased wages of artisans

64 Crisis in Europe The papacy had emerged from its conflict with the Holy Roman Empire. ▫Weakened its spiritual authority and brought it into conflict with other secular powers. Along with the Great Schism, Northern Europe was torn apart by religious sectarianism.

65 Coming Together Despite all the upheaval, monarchies consolidated their power over emerging nations and reformation as well as humanism were spread across Europe. ▫Embodied a worldview that focused on human beings

66 Humanism Impact Artists of the Catholic Reformation produced sculptures whose expressive distortions reflect the fervent spirituality of the era. In the Netherlands, iconoclasts destroyed religious images ▫religious patronage of art declined ▫secular patronage of sculptures became more prominent  commodities in a booming market economy.

67 Foreign Influence Reflected in the sculptures styles ▫Mostly Gothic Influence  Soaring vaults, light, colorful glass ▫Little Italian Influence— absorbed theories/techniques

68 Mode of Sculptures Work had little connection with the classical style that developed in Italy. Instead, northern sculptors continued to use techniques found in the great Gothic cathedrals. They worked with large figures in wood and stone to exquisite ivory carvings. ▫The pieces offer a broad range of emotional expression, from dramatic to sensitive.

69 Sculpture Characteristics Sculpture in the th centuries is exemplified by its ‘intimate character.’ Religious subjects became more emotionally expressive. ▫Cult of Chivalry

70 Sculpture Characteristics Tales of love and valor were carved on luxury items to satisfy the rich, middle class, and aristocracy alike. Metals such as gold, silver, and ivory were preferred.

71 Influential People In the 1300s, Northern European sculptors had developed a form of realism that was highly detailed. ▫Sculptors began creating precise portraits of particular individuals. This realism reached it’s peak with Flemish sculptor Claus Sluter ▫images of biblical figures have animated expressions, a sense of movement, and include details such as signs of aging. Another characteristic of northern European work during this period is the use of paint on sculptured surfaces.

72 Other Areas with Art In the 1400s, sculpture in the realistic style appeared in Germany and Austria. The Dutch artist Nicolaus Gerhaert, brought the style of Claus Sluter to the region. Notable German sculptural works: ▫wooden altarpieces to decorate churches ▫Combined sculpture with painting

73 Italian Renaissance Influence In the 1500s, the Italian Renaissance arrived in northern Europe. Flemish and German artists, such as traveled to Italy and brought back Renaissance ideas and practices. ▫Albrecht Dürer, In France and Spain, the monarchs were responsible for introducing Renaissance art. Commissioned works from leading Italian masters. ▫The Italian artist Francesco Primaticcio adorned the French royal residence at Fontainebleau with elegant stucco nudes. ▫In turn, many French and Spanish artists adopted Italian artistic technique

74 Regression and Resurgence The rise of the Protestant Reformation in German-speaking lands temporarily put an end to new religious sculpture. The more radical Protestant reformers were strongly opposed to the religious use of images. ▫However, the followers of Martin Luther accepted and contributed to the re-emergence of religious sculpture in Germany in the late 1500s.

75 Pictures

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87 Bibliography Knip, Bastiaan. "Europeans Sculpture." Northern European Sculpture. N.p., Web. 4 Sept Northern Renaissance Art, (OBIS) Stechow, Wolfgang,Evanston, ILL : Northwestern University Press, 1989 Art N N Stokstad, Mary. Art History Volume One. Vol. 1. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, INC, 2008, N. pag. 3 vols. Print.

88 Northern European Renaissance Architecture

89 Renaissance Architecture The Northern European Renaissance was very heavily influenced by the Italian Renaissance architecturally. Northern Europe followed in Italy’s footsteps toward a more classical architectural style and began to cut off the gothic architecture that had been so dominant. The Architecture became more open, more specifically, open to God. Religion was very influential in architecture, it was part of the style to leave very much room for light to come in.

90 Renaissance Architecture Architects were very influenced by nature, and wanted to be done with the dark and gloomy forms of Gothic building. And though many Gothic structures were already highly decorative, the new classical architectural style promoted new and better use of artistic decoration. Use of natural light was a major theme during the Renaissance. The light was symbolic of purity and God, and in turn, was a major theme of many architectural works.

91 Regions The Renaissance in Northern Europe did not happen all at once. It was generally one country at a time that would join in. This meant that architecture would change quickly but all be connected. Germany was heavily influenced by Italian architecture, as was Spain. French and English architecture was very decorative, and Scandinavian architecture took one formidable manors. All tried to appeal to aesthetics and classical demand. Burghley House, Cambridgeshire, England

92 Renaissance Architecture For example, The Frederiksborg palace in Denmark. Very spacious, highly decorative, and plays off natural light.

93 Germany Germany: The St Michael’s church In Munich, Germany Built by William V, Duke of Bavaria Large windows to let in light High ceiling Lots of open space Highly decorative Symmetrical

94 Spain Palacio de los Guzmanes, designed by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Open courtyard Open space Symmetrical Classical appearance Many windows for light

95 France Chateau de Chambord in the Loire Valley, France Very spacious grounds, very intricate and decorative towers

96 England Elizabethan Architecture was the pinnacle of England’s renaissance. It was heavily Dutch and Flemish in design. Wollaton Hall, Nottingham, England Very open Many windows to let in light Very classical appeal Symmetrical Very decorative

97 Important People Sebastiano Serlio : Italian Renaissance figure. He wrote Tutte l’opere d’architettura, et prospetiva ( “Complete Works on Architecture and Perspective”), Which was translated from Latin and was hugely influential on Northern European architecture. His book promoted practical architecture philosophy as opposed to theoretical architecture philosophy

98 Important People Marcus Vitruvius: Marcus Vitruvius was a roman was a Roman writer, architect and engineer who wrote the multi-volume work De Architectura ("On Architecture"). The rediscovery of Vitruvius' work had a profound influence on architects of the Renaissance, prompting the rise of the Neo-Classical style. Renaissance architects, such as Niccoli, Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti, found in "De Architectura” their inspiration for raising their branch of knowledge to a science as well as emphasizing the skills of the architect. More specifically in Northern Europe Renaissance architecture, The English architect Inigo Jones and the Frenchman Salomon de Caus were among the first to rediscover and implement those disciplines that Vitruvius considered a necessary element of architecture: arts and sciences based upon number and proportion. In the marginalia that Spanish architect El Greco inscribed in his copy of Daniele Barbaro's translation of Vitruvius' “De architectura”, he refuted Vitruvius' attachment to archaeological remains, perspective and mathematics. He also saw Vitruvius' manner of distorting proportions in order to compensate for distance from the eye as responsible for creating monstrous forms.

99 Sources Sebastiano Serlio: Serlio, Sebastiano. Canon of the 5 orders Print. Serlio, Sebastiano. Tragic Set Print. Hewitt, Barnard, ed. (1958), The Renaissance Stage: Documents of Serlio, Sabbattini, Furttenbach, Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press Read more:

100 Sources Marcus Vitruvius: Vitruvius, Marcus. De Architectura. Italy: Cesare Cesariano, Print. Vitruvius, Marcus. De Architectura. Italy: Daniele Barbaro, Print "Vitruvius Pollio." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Encyclopedia.com. 4 Sep

101 Sources Images: Cher_Chambord_Chateau_03.jpg c/J jpg 600x.jpg 9.jpg/800px-Front_of_Burghley_House_2009.jpg


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