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Module Coordinator Tan Szu Tak School of Information and Communication Technology, Politeknik Brunei Semester 3 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Module Coordinator Tan Szu Tak School of Information and Communication Technology, Politeknik Brunei Semester 3 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module Coordinator Tan Szu Tak School of Information and Communication Technology, Politeknik Brunei Semester

2 2  Database Design Database Design  Degrees of Data Abstraction Degrees of Data Abstraction  Entity Relationship Modelling Entity Relationship Modelling  Entity Relationship Diagrams Entity Relationship Diagrams  Entities Entities  Diagramming Entities Diagramming Entities  Attribute Attribute *Words with underline can be clicked on

3 3  Diagramming Attributes Diagramming Attributes  Relationships Relationships  Cardinality Ratios Cardinality Ratios  Diagramming Relationships Diagramming Relationships  Removing M:M Relationships Removing M:M Relationships  Types of ER Modelling Symbols Types of ER Modelling Symbols  Making ER Models Making ER Models *Words with underline can be clicked on

4 4  Entities and Attributes Entities and Attributes  One to One Relationships One to One Relationships  Redundant Relationships Redundant Relationships  Making ER Diagrams Making ER Diagrams  Debugging Designs Debugging Designs *Words with underline can be clicked on

5 Before looking at how to create and use a database, we need to look at how to design one. We may change the instance of the database anytime but not the schema. Therefore a good design is required. Need to consider:  What tables, keys, and constraints are required?  What is the database going to be used for? 5

6 There are few types of design:  Conceptual design ◦ Build a model independent of the choice of DBMS  Logical design ◦ Create the database in a given DBMS  Physical design ◦ How the database is stored in hardware. 6

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8 ER Modelling is used for conceptual design.  Entities – objects or items of interest.  Attributes – facts about, or properties of, an entity.  Relationships – links between entities. E.g. In a University database we might have entities for Students, Modules and Lectures. Students might have attributes such as their ID, Name, and Course, and could have relationships with Modules (enrolment) and Lecturers. 8

9 ER Models are often represented as ER diagrams (ERD) that:  Give a conceptual view of the database  Are independent of the choice of DBMS  Can identify some problems in a design. 9

10 Entities represent objects or things of interest  Physical things like students, lecturers, employees, product.  More abstract things like modules, orders, courses, projects. 10

11 Entities have  A general type of class, such as Lecturer or Module  Instances of that particular type, such as Miss Amal, Miss Azu are instances of Lecturer.  Attributes (such as name, address) 11

12 In an ERD an entity is usually drawn as a box with rounded corners. The box is labelled with the name of the class of objects represented by that entity. 12

13 Attributes are facts, aspects, properties or details about an entity  Students have IDs, Name, courses, address,…  Lecturers have Name, Department,…  Modules have codes, titles, credit unit, semesters,… 13

14 Attributes have  A name  An associated entity  Domains of possible values  Values from the domain for each instance of the entity they are belong to 14

15 In an ERD an attributes may be drawn as ovals. Each attribute is linked to its entity by a line. The name of the attribute is written in the oval. 15

16 Relationships are an association between two or more entities.  Each Student take several Modules  Each Module is taught by a Lecturer  Each Employee works for a single Department 16

17 Relationships have  A name  A set of entities that participate in them  A degree – the number of entities that participate (Most have degree 2)  A cardinality ratio 17

18 Each entity in a relationship can participate in zero, one, or more than one instances of that relationship. This leads to 3 types of relationship.  One to one (1:1)  One to many (1:M)  Many to many (M:M) 18

19  One to one (1:1) ◦ Each entity in the relationship will have exactly one related entity.  One to many (1:M) ◦ An entity on one side of the relationship can have many related entities, but an entity on the other side will have a maximum of one related entity.  Many to many (M:N) ◦ Entities on both sides of the relationship can have many related entities on the other side. 19

20 One to one (1:1) E.g. Each lecturer has a unique office. Each student has a unique student ID 20

21 One to many (1:M) E.g. Each class can be used by different courses. Each book in the library can be borrowed by different students. 21

22 Many to one (M:1) E.g. Many lecturers are under a department. Many students are under SICT. 22

23 Many to many (M:N) E.g. Each student takes several modules, and each module is taken up by several students. 23

24 Relationships are links between two entities The name is given in a diamond box The ends of the link show cardinality 24

25 Many to many relationship are difficult to represent. Therefore it should be split into 2 one to many relationships 25

26 There are four types of ER modelling symbols:  Chen ◦ Moved conceptual design into practical database design arena.  Crow’s Foot ◦ Cannot detail all cardinalities  Rein85 ◦ Operates at higher level of abstraction  IDEF1X ◦ Uses fewer symbols. 26

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28 To make an ER model you need to identify:  Entities  Attributes  Relationships  Cardinality From the description/business rules of the organization. 28

29 General guidelines:  Since entities are things or objects they are often nouns in the description.  Attributes are facts or properties, and so are often nouns as well.  Verbs often describe relationships between entities. 29

30 Example – Find the entities A university consists of a number of departments. Each department offers several courses. A number of modules make up each course. Students enroll in a particular course and take modules towards the completion of that course. Each module is taught by a lecturer from the appropriate department, and each lecturer tutors a group of students. 30

31 Example – Find the entities A university consists of a number of departments. Each department offers several courses. A number of modules make up each course. Students enroll in a particular course and take modules towards the completion of that course. Each module is taught by a lecturer from the appropriate department, and each lecturer tutors a group of students. 31

32 Example – Relationships A university consists of a number of departments. Each department offers several courses. A number of modules make up each course. Students enroll in a particular course and take modules towards the completion of that course. Each module is taught by a lecturer from the appropriate department, and each lecturer tutors a group of students. 32

33 Entities: Department Course, Module, Lecturer, Student 33

34 Each department offers several courses 34

35 A number of modules make up each courses 35

36 Students enroll in a particular course 36

37 Students … take modules 37

38 Each module is taught by a lecturer 38

39 A lecturer from the appropriate department 39

40 Each lecturer tutors a group of students 40

41 Sometimes it is hard to tell if something should be an entity or an attribute.  They both represent objects or facts about the world.  They both are often represented by nouns in descriptions. 41

42 General guidelines  Entities can have attributes but attributes have no smaller parts  Entities can have relationships between them, but an attribute belongs to a single entity 42

43 Example We want to represent information about products in a database. Each product has a description, a price and a supplier. Suppliers have addresses, phone numbers, and names. Each address is made up of a street address a city, and a postcode. 43

44 Example Which is entity? which is attribute? Each product has a description, a price and a supplier. Suppliers have addresses, phone numbers, and names. Each address is made up of a street address a city, and a postcode. 44

45 Products, suppliers, and addresses all have smaller parts. Therefore they can be made into entities. The others have no smaller parts and are belong to a single entity. Therefore they can be made into attributes. 45

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47 Each product has a supplier  Each product has a single supplier but there is nothing to stop a supplier supplying many products. (M:1) Each supplier has an address  A supplier has a single address  It does not seem sensible for two different suppliers to have the same address. (1:1) 47

48 48

49 Some relationships between entities, A and B, might be redundant if:  It is a 1:1 relationship between A and B.  Every A is related to a B and every B is related to an A. 49

50 Example The supplier-address relationship:  Is one to one (1:1)  Every supplier has an address  No address that are not related to a supplier is available. 50

51 We can merge the two entities that take part in a redundant relationship together.  They become a single entity.  The new entity has all the attributes of the old one. 51

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53 From a description of the requirements, identify the:  Entities  Attributes  Relationships  Cardinality ratios of the relationships 53

54 Draw the ER diagram and then:  Look at one to one relationships as they might be redundant.  Look at many to many relationships as they might need to be split into two one to many links. 54

55 With a bit of practice ER Diagrams can be used to plan queries.  You can look at the diagram and figure our how to find useful information.  If you can’t find the information you need, you may need to change the design. 55

56 Example How can you find a list of students who are enrolled in Database Systems? 56

57 (1) Find the instance of the Module entity with title ‘Database Systems’ (2) Find instances of the Enrolment entity with the same Code as the result of (1) (3) For each instance of Enrolment in the result of (2) find the corresponding Student. 57

58 Instructions: 1. Groupings 2. write down the name of the group member on the A3 paper. 3. Read the given description properly 4. Discuss within the group. Answer the Question by writing them down on the A3 paper provided. 5. Once completed, keep it to your own group, instruction will be given when the time ends. 58

59 A database will be made to store information about patients in a hospital. On arrival, each patient’s personal details (name, address, and telephone number) are recorded where possible, and they are given an admission number. They are then assigned to a particular ward (Accident and Emergency, Cardiology, Oncology, etc.). In each ward there are number of doctors and nurses. A patient will be treated by one doctor and several nurses over the course of their stay, and each doctor and nurse may be involved with several patients at any given time. 59

60 1) Identify the entities, attributes, relationship, and cardinality ratios from the description. 2) Draw an entity-relationship diagram showing the items you identified. (merge any redundant relation) 3) Many-to-many (M:M) relationships are hard to represent in SQL tables. Explain why many-to-many relationships cause problems in SQL tables, and show how these problems may be overcome. 60

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62 Ref: Dr Natasha Alechina, University of Nottingham Lecture Slides by Tan Szu Tak, SICT, Politeknik Brunei


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