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Chartism What was Chartism and what was the cause of Chartism? What progress did Chartism make? Who were the leaders of Chartism? What reasons contributed.

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Presentation on theme: "Chartism What was Chartism and what was the cause of Chartism? What progress did Chartism make? Who were the leaders of Chartism? What reasons contributed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chartism What was Chartism and what was the cause of Chartism? What progress did Chartism make? Who were the leaders of Chartism? What reasons contributed to the failure of Chartism?

2 Sit in the following groups Care Bears Thomas, Jacob Arkell, Warren, Sophie Moomins Hannah, Shirley, Jacob Atwell, Catherine Flintstones Elizabeth, Katie, Fabian Smurfs Jas, Rosie, Matthew, Bethany Power Rangers Dan, Charlotte, Millie, Kieran

3 Why did people still want change? What might they want?

4 What was Chartism and what was the cause of Chartism? Learning Objectives: To begin to understand the different interpretations of why Chartism began? To learn new key terms/concepts

5 Chartism Anthem BF&list=PL86647A3540C4FC35&index=27 BF&list=PL86647A3540C4FC35&index=27 What is the message of this anthem?

6 Chartism Chapter 7 “The Chartist Movement”, page 115 Who started it? When did it begin? What did they want? What methods were to be used? What model of change is this?

7 Chartism Chapter 7 “The Chartist Movement”, page 115 Who started it? Six members of the LWMA and six radical MPs. When did it begin? 1837 – People’s Charter was published in May 1838 What did they want? People’s Charter – 6 points – Universal Suffrage, secret ballot, annual parliaments, equal electoral districts, abolition of the property qualification for MPs, payment for MPs What methods were to be used? National Mass Movement, National Petition, National Convention, strikes, printing press, Moral Force V Physical Force What model of change is this? Low Politics – pressure from the population for change

8 Key Terms Look at these points of the Charter. Which one is missing? Which one do you think is the most important? Be prepared to justify your answer.

9 Chartism - Causes What do you already know about the Reform Act that might explain the Causes of Chartism? Identify from pages the possible causes of Chartism and display them on a Bubble Map. Classify them as political or economic causes. Which do you have more of?

10 What was the cause of Chartism?

11 The Factory Act Huge disappointment to reformers who campaigned for 10 hour day. All it achieved was restrictions in hours on children, showed little interest in conditions Unstamped Press – The Six Acts or “Gagging Act” 1819 meant stamp duty had to be paid on newspapers – attempt to deprive radical press of working class readers. The Poor Man’s guardian was sold for a penny and sold 15,000 copies a week. (Henry Hetherington) Trade Union 1834 – when trade improved between unions were in a better position to bargain for better pay. Feb 1834 GNCTU was launched – 16,000 members, March 1834 six farm labourers arrested for taking illegal oaths – sentenced 7 years transportation (Tolpuddle Martyrs) Continuing radical movement – Henry Hunt, William Cobbett and Major Cartwright continued to demand political change. New leaders such as Feargus O’Connor. Disappointment of 1832 – less working class voters Municipal Corporations Act 1835 – excluded working class from participation in local gov Economic Origins – “knife and fork question” – close associated with periods of economic hardship, Chartism reached its height during periods of economic depression late 1830s, 1842, Handloom weavers were hardest hit approx. 400,000

12 Key Terms Universal Suffrage What does this mean?

13 Homework Ensure you have read all of Chapter 7 ‘What was the Chartist movement?’

14 The Smurfs Jacob Arkell, Kieran, Katie, Rosie The Rugrats Thomas, Shirley, Jacob Atwell, Sophie The Carebears Hannah, Dan, Bethany, Millie The Moomins Catherine, Charlotte, Fabian, The Flintstones Elizabeth, Jas, Matthew, Warren

15 Why did Chartism begin? Learning Objectives: To begin to understand the different interpretations of why Chartism began? To learn new key terms/concepts

16 Chartism Quiz 1.What do the initials LWMA stand for? 2.Name any 3 of the Charter`s 6 points 3.What model of politics does Chartism represent? 4.Which organisation did Chartism model their movement on? 5.Which famous MP helped to draw up the Charter? 6.Give 2 reasons why Chartism developed. 7.Name 2 pieces of legislation passed under the Whigs that the working classes resented. 8.What happened in 1837 to fuel the discontent of the working classes? 9.Name 2 ways the Chartists aimed to influence the government. 10.Chartism split into 2; name the 2 types of Chartism that existed. 11.What was the Sacred Month that was suggested? 12. In which Welsh town were 20 Chartist marchers killed in 1839? 13.Name the Irish landowner who set up the National Charter Association 14. What name was given to the industrial sabotage that involved steam boilers in cotton mills? 15.What was the name of the Chartist newspaper? 16.Which leader advocated education for the working classes?

17 Can you explain these terms?  A “Knife and Fork Question”  Class Consciousness”  Political Awareness  Low Politics model  Radical Tradition  Unstamped Press  Popular pressure

18 Task Read the sheet on “Why did the Whigs fall from power in 1841”. Does it support any reasons already identified as the causes of Chartism? Do you think there is more evidence of the political or economic argument?

19 What progress did Chartism make? Lesson Objectives To introduce more key terms and concepts To learn what progress Chartism made To understand the reasons why people supported Chartism To understand the concept of an “umbrella movement”

20 Causes of Chartism Look at the sheet called The Umbrella Movement. Do you understand each one? What does “implicit social programme” mean? Highlight the terms / events you do not understand. What does this tell us about the causes of Chartism? If there are lots of different motives for joining a movement does it make it stronger or weaker?

21 Causes of Chartism What does “implicit social programme” mean? – Outline of state activity which follows and implements specific social welfare policy

22 Causes of Chartism Look at the chapter called, “The Working- Class Challenge”. Use pages to find out about each of the items under the umbrella. Do these items prove it was an economic or a political movement?

23

24 Chartism: an Umbrella Movement Political Radicalism Political principals focussed on altering social structures through revolutionary means (low politics) Reform Bill Campaign hundreds of thousands of working people had marched and demonstrated in support of reform. They had joined the middle classes in hope of further reform. This was a successful example of a national movement for reform. Owenism Robert Owen and his followers (Owenites) 19 th Century reformers who aimed for radical reform. Trade Unions Were legalised with the repeal of the combination acts in Unions were stronger position to bargain for pay/conditions when trade improved There were a number of small strikes but the gov was most worried about large general unions (GNCTU etc) – Feb 1834 – example of support for Tolpuddle Martyrs. War of the Unstamped Press Gagging Acts of 1819 meant newspapers had to pay stamp duty deprived radical press of its readers. Some continued “ the poor mans guardian” sold 15,000 a weeks owned by Henry Hetherington tax was lowered so newspapers sold for 1.5p. Allowed radical ideas to spread but also showed a well-organised and determined campaign could force change. Factory Movement and Anti-Poor Law Campaign Factory Act was hugely disappointing – only restricted children's working hours. Parliament was showing little interest in conditions of workers campaign launched against new Poor Law was significant. Looked like it was designed to rob them of their right to poor relief as it sent them to the work house in hard times. Women began to play an important role in this (and Chartism). Radicals like Oastler, Fielden, Fergus O’Conner and J.R.Stephens toured the country. When Fielden put the repeal of new Poor Law to parliament HofC voted against it showing that if change was going to occur working men needed to be in government.

25 Political or economic? Read page 105 from the 1 st chapter. What are the key arguments made? Which evidence supports the political argument and which the economic argument?

26 Political or Economic? Economic Chartism grew out of economic and social discontent. Mass support was at its greatest during times of depression , 1842, 1848 Appealed mostly to those suffering economic hardship e.g. handloom weavers and framework knitters. Had little appeal in times of economic growth or to workers in booming industries e.g. engineering. Political Chartism made a connection between economic hardship and ‘misgovernment’ in the same way radical leaders like William Cobbett had done. Political change in 1832 had not gone far enough in ‘rooting out old corruption’ They believed democratically elected gov would not tax poor or govern in interests of the narrow elite Political reform was therefore a prerequisite to economic advancement for the majority of people The six points (if implemented) would have overhauled the political system. Chartism therefore could be considered a radical political movement.

27 Political or economic Read pages in “The Working- Class Challenge”. What is meant by “hunger politics”? What united working people? What conclusion does the writer come to?

28 Political or economic Read pages in “The Working- Class Challenge”. What is meant by “hunger politics”? The view that Chartism was mainly an economic movement as the maximum support for Chartism were in the years of economic depression when trade was poor and many were thrown out of work. What united working people? Anger and frustration that working class people felt in the years after the reform act. What conclusion does the writer come to? To take control and bring economic change, they would need to gain political power first. Chartism is best seen as both an economic and political movement as it was composed of political activists who wanted to use politics to improve their living and working conditions.

29 How can Chartism be interpreted? Learning Objectives: To practise our source analysis skills To compare the sources To prepare for a 20 marks question on causes of Chartism Learning Outcomes: To successfully complete a 20 mark question

30 Sit in the following groups Care Bears Thomas, Jacob Arkell, Warren Moomins Hannah, Shirley, Jacob Atwell, Catherine, Rosie, Dan Flintstones Elizabeth, Katie, Fabian Smurfs Jas, Matthew, Bethany Power Rangers Charlotte, Millie, Kieran

31 Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1? Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks) How can Chartism be interpreted? What question are we working towards?

32 Task 1: As a group annotate, analyse and evaluate the source on your table. What do these words mean? Annotate Analyse Evaluate Questions you need to answer: 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? 2.What evidence do you have to support this? 3.How significant is the NOP? 4.How does this link to what we have been learning? 5.Is there anything in this source you do not understand? What are we aiming to be able to do? 1.Understand the source 2.Be able to pass on your understanding to the next group 3.Answer a 20 mark question successfully

33 SOURCE 1 ( From Bronterre O`Brien, writing on the “Rotten House of Commons” in McDouall`s Chartist and Republican Journal in 1841) What have we gained by the increase in the constituency made by the Reform Bill ? – I answer worse than nothing. We have merely augmented the number of our enemies … The men who made the Reform Bill were not fools; neither were the middle classes for whom it was made. – the Whigs saw, and the middle classes saw, that the effect of the Bill would be to unite all property against all poverty. How can Chartism be interpreted? What evidence are we working with? What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? What evidence do you have to support this? How significant is the NOP? How does this link to what we have been learning? Is there anything in this source you do not understand?

34 SOURCE 2 (John Mason, A Tyneside shoemaker warned Chartists in Leicester …) Don`t be deceived by the middle classes again. You helped them to get their votes … But where are the fine promises they made you ? Do not listen to their humbug. Stick to your Charter. You are veritable slaves without your votes. How can Chartism be interpreted? What evidence are we working with? What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? What evidence do you have to support this? How significant is the NOP? How does this link to what we have been learning? Is there anything in this source you do not understand?

35 SOURCE 3 (Taken from the columns of the Star in January 1842) Why is it that, in the midst of plenty, we are in such a condition ? Why is it that those who are willing to work, that those who have produced everything in society, without whom the factories would not have been built, the machinery made, the railroads constructed, the canals cut, who build and man the ships, who fight the battles, make the hats shoes and coats, and till the land –cannot get enough to quell the ravings of hunger? How can Chartism be interpreted? What evidence are we working with? What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? What evidence do you have to support this? How significant is the NOP? How does this link to what we have been learning? Is there anything in this source you do not understand?

36 Task 2: Move to with 2 other students who have studied the other sources. Make notes on your source sheet to allow you to answer the following questions: 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? 2.What evidence do you have to support this? 3.How significant is the NOP? What are we aiming to be able to do? 1.Understand the source 2.Be able to pass on your understanding to the next group 3.Answer a 20 mark question successfully

37 SOURCE 1 ( From Bronterre O`Brien, writing on the “Rotten House of Commons” in McDouall`s Chartist and Republican Journal in 1841) What have we gained by the increase in the constituency made by the Reform Bill ? – I answer worse than nothing. We have merely augmented the number of our enemies … The men who made the Reform Bill were not fools; neither were the middle classes for whom it was made. – the Whigs saw, and the middle classes saw, that the effect of the Bill would be to unite all property against all poverty. SOURCE 2 (John Mason, A Tyneside shoemaker warned Chartists in Leicester …) Don`t be deceived by the middle classes again. You helped them to get their votes … But where are the fine promises they made you ? Do not listen to their humbug. Stick to your Charter. You are veritable slaves without your votes. SOURCE 3 (Taken from the columns of the Star in January 1842) Why is it that, in the midst of plenty, we are in such a condition ? Why is it that those who are willing to work, that those who have produced everything in society, without whom the factories would not have been built, the machinery made, the railroads constructed, the canals cut, who build and man the ships, who fight the battles, make the hats shoes and coats, and till the land –cannot get enough to quell the ravings of hunger? Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1? Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks) 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? 2.What evidence do you have to support this? 3.How significant is the NOP? 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? 2. What evidence do you have to support this? 3. How significant is the NOP? 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? 2.What evidence do you have to support this? 3.How significant is the NOP?

38 Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1? Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks) Source 1 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? The failure of the 1832 Reform Bill and the disappointment/betrayal of the middle classes. The working classes had supported the Bill to gain the Middle Classes the vote and now they felt they had been betrayed as the Middle Classes had sided with the landed classes and were not supporting further reform. 2.What evidence do you have to support this? “what have we gained…worse than nothing” showing they feel the reform act has taken a step back from democracy for the working classes not further. “augmented the number of our enemies” the number of “enemies” of the working classes has increased – there are more people standing in their way. “were not fools” it was done on purpose Source 2 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? The middle classes have robbed the working classes of their votes. The working classes now need to focus on the Charter and political change in order to gain back control. 2.What evidence do you have to support this? “deceived by the middle classes. Again” – “again” suggest they have before “fine promises” – refers back to 1832 “humbug” nonsense “Charter” – political aims of Chartism “slaves” – tied to the other classes, no control Source 3 1.What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism? Causes of Chartism were economic. Despite the working classes being the ones who make the country wealthy they are struggling to feed themselves. 2.What evidence do you have to support this? “midst of plenty” – the country is wealthy and doing well and the working classes are surrounded by those doing well “Why is it that…we are in such a condition?” why are the working classes struggling? “factories”, “machinery”, “railroads”, “fight in battles”, “make hats and shoes” – refers specifically to the working class professions “cannot get enough to quell the ravings of hunger” – despite the wealth of the country some are still starving –

39 SOURCE 1 ( From Bronterre O`Brien, writing on the “Rotten House of Commons” in McDouall`s Chartist and Republican Journal in 1841) What have we gained by the increase in the constituency made by the Reform Bill? – I answer worse than nothing. We have merely augmented the number of our enemies … The men who made the Reform Bill were not fools; neither were the middle classes for whom it was made. – the Whigs saw, and the middle classes saw, that the effect of the Bill would be to unite all property against all poverty. SOURCE 2 (John Mason, A Tyneside shoemaker warned Chartists in Leicester …) Don`t be deceived by the middle classes again. You helped them to get their votes … But where are the fine promises they made you ? Do not listen to their humbug. Stick to your Charter. You are veritable slaves without your votes. SOURCE 3 (Taken from the columns of the Star in January 1842) Why is it that, in the midst of plenty, we are in such a condition? Why is it that those who are willing to work, that those who have produced everything in society, without whom the factories would not have been built, the machinery made, the railroads constructed, the canals cut, who build and man the ships, who fight the battles, make the hats shoes and coats, and till the land –cannot get enough to quell the ravings of hunger? Causes Anger with the reform act Anger towards the betrayal of the middle classes Situation of the working classes Points of similarity Source 1 – links to 2 over betrayal of middle classes – this can be further linked to the Reform Act Source 2 – (as above) + link to condition of the working classes Source refer to mainly political causes Source 3 – links to “slavery” comment in 2 but is mainly discussing economic causes Points of challenge Source focus on political causes where as 3 focusses on economic causes – it says the working classes are the source of the countries wealth and yet they are starving. Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1? Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks)

40 Source 3 both agrees and disagrees with Sources 1 and 2. It does this as it gives both political and economic reasons for Chartism being made. The political reasons given are that of the government using the working classes for their industrial skills – ‘those who are willing to work, that those who have produced everything in society’ and in turn are not rewarded, hence agreeing with Source 2, however, Source 3 is mainly a source dealing with economic motives of Chartism. This can be seen with ‘cannot get enough to quell the ravings of hunger’ and is indeed a main motive of Chartism. In 1837, the Trade Depression began, lasting till Within this, the government could have intervened to fix the economy however they did nothing; this will have caused great upset among the working classes as they suffered from this, barely having enough money to put dinner upon the table. It is from this, that Chartism formed as there was the belief that if the Working Classes gained the vote, then being the majority of the population the government would then listen and respect to what is needed for them. Hence, as Source 3 gives both political and economic reasoning, it was a political movement to fix the economy. It is hard to draw a line between the two as in a sense they go hand in hand. The hunger the working classes felt will have influenced them to take action, it is an example of the Knife and Fork question – they have no money for food and therefore campaign. Also, William Cobbett said ‘I defy you to agitate a man on a full stomach’ once again indicating that the reason so many took action within Chartism was due to the fact that they had no means to support themselves and their family. Hence, it is due to the economic reasons that Source 3 gives it disagrees with Source 1 and 2. The Source was produced in 1842; the ending of the Trade Depression and therefore Chartism will have gained great support due to the lack of food the working classes faced. It originates from the newspaper The Star and therefore will most likely be exaggerated, however since the war of the unstamped press was won in 1836, the Star could print what it deemed fit, even if that is in favour of Chartism – the Northern Star was a newspaper devoted to Chartism founded by on Fergus O’Connor in 1837 (O’Connor was a key member within Chartism and was one of the founders). Comparison Quotes Clear answer to the question NOP Student Example

41 Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1? Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks) How can Chartism be interpreted? Homework: complete the 20 mark question?

42 Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1? Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks) How can Chartism be interpreted? FEEDBACK

43 Source 2 agrees with source 1 as it also blames the middle classes. It claims that the working classes have been “deceived” by the middle classes, as they encouraged the working classes to back a bill which failed to get them the vote, and only achieved a strengthening of the middle class. It hints at betrayal, as the middle class have broken their “fine promises” which would anger the working classes, further encouraging them to “stick to [their] charter”, which is similar to source 1 as it also mentions that the bill united “property against all poverty” which would anger that working classes into fighting back., as they would have felt hard done by the middle classes. Source 2 is a speech given by a Tyneside shoemaker, which shows that the Charter did represent the feelings of the working classes, as he is from an industrial, working class area, so stating they “are veritable slaves without [their] votes”, he suggests people in his area have no political power or freedom. This is also similar to source 1, as 1 gives the impression that the united property owning upper classes are against the working classes. Both suggest that the rise in Chartism was a result of political unrest, as the middle classes strove for political power, which had a negative effect on the power of the working classes. Student Example Main body Compare this extract to your mark scheme. What key skills can you recognise? How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1?

44 In conclusion, I think sources 2 and 3 are quite supportive of the reasons for Chartism given in source 1, as source 2 agrees with the view that the higher classes are to blame, and the reform bill was ineffective for the working classes needs. Although source 3 seems to disagree with this view, the economic hardship it mentions could be viewed as a result of the upper classes, as they take all of the profits and products that the working classes have worked hard to achieve, and keep it to themselves, leaving the working classes with nothing but poverty. Therefore the complaints voiced in source 3 could be seen as a result of the failings of the reform act pointed out in source 1 and 2. Student Example Conclusion Compare this extract to your mark scheme. What key skills can you recognise? How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1?

45 The Progress of Chartism What happened?

46 What progress did Chartism make? Learning Objectives: To understand the progress of Chartism To identify high points and low points in the movement To begin to understand why Chartism does not succeed

47 The Juvenile Chartist Such a capital lark signing my name to this Chartist Petition. I always sign it when I goes over the bridge and when I comes back. (Errand boy`s statement quoted in the Times, April 13 th ). It appears that the name of the Duke of Wellington was appended no less than 19 times to the petition

48 Cartoons Look at the cartoon – The Juvenile Chartist; what type of Chartism does it represent ? Who is the “Juvenile Chartist? Does it give you any hint as to why Chartism would fail?

49 A Special Constable getting ready Special Constable drying his gunpowder in the frying pan

50 Cartoons Look at the cartoon, The Special Constable; what does it reveal about why Chartism would fail ? Who is the “Special Constable”?

51 Presenting the Charter to Parliament Not so very unreasonable – eh ?

52 Cartoons Look at the cartoon showing the presentation of the Charter to Parliament. What does it show about why Chartism should have succeeded?

53 A Physical Force Chartist arming for the fight

54 Cartoons Look at the cartoon about Physical Force Chartists; what does it tell you about why Chartism would fail?

55 Chartism Timeline The aim of this task is to identify the main events in Chartism and to analyse their importance. You will need the chapter from last lesson (Chapter 7). Use this to identify the main events in Chartism from 1838 to 1848; it is up to you which events you choose. You can work in twos or threes to do this. Then plot these events on a timeline. Then decide which are the highs and lows of Chartism on your timeline; be prepared to justify your answer.

56 Highs and Lows Pick out the main events between 1838 and 1840 from your timeline: Which ones are HIGHS ? Which ones are LOWS ?

57 Highs and Lows Now look at the years 1840 to 1848: What are the HIGHS ? What are the LOWS ? Which period of time is more positive or negative for Chartism ?

58 Highs and Lows Mark on your timeline when the Whigs lost power and Peel became PM Mark on when there was a trade depression Mark on when the Mines Act was passed Does this help us to explain whether it was a political or an economic movement?

59 Progress Use the task sheet to find out about specific events.

60

61 What progress did Chartism make? Learning Objectives: To consolidate your learning about the key areas of Chartism by demonstrating what key ideas you have grasped. To apply what you have learned to the possible reasons for the failure of the movement.

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63 What progress did Chartism make? Using the 2 chapters you have and the task sheet find out about some aspects of Chartism that may have led to it`s failure. Work in pairs but then exchange information to ensure that everyone in your group has the correct answers.

64 Support for Chartism Find a reason to argue that Chartism was a national movement. Find some evidence to back-up the view that Chartism was not fully supported by the working classes.

65 Support for Chartism Find a reason to argue that Chartism was a national movement. Over 200,000 people attended meetings in Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds Northern Star selling 50,000 copies in 1839 Convention million signatures collected – “calimed to represent all people” Industrial districts of the North, South Lancashire and West Riding of Yorkshire – main power bases Find some evidence to back-up the view that Chartism was not fully supported by the working classes. Patchy nature of support has led some historians to believe it was not a National movement Movement began as a campaign of resistance to policies of the Whigs and protest of distress in industrial districts Newport Rising – most middle classes withdrew Since working class communities varied considerably from place to place a degree of fragmentations was inevitable

66 The importance of class Find a piece of evidence that proves that the Chartists were focussed on class conflict. Find a reason that explains why the middle classes might support the Anti-Corn Law League.

67 The importance of class Find a piece of evidence that proves that the Chartists were focussed on class conflict. By 1838 George Julian Harney formed the London Democratic Association and adopted a policy of class conflict. In N of England Chartists showed particular hostility to Middle Classes and ACLL – which they accused of campaigning for ‘Cheap Bread’ in order to reduce wages Among ordinary Chartists there were variations in degree of antagonism towards middle classes Find a reason that explains why the middle classes might support the Anti-Corn Law League. See above

68 Strategies Identify 2 Moral Force tactics that failed. Identify 1 Physical Force tactic that failed. How could you argue that the decision not to stage the Sacred month was A) Pragmatic or B) Cowardly

69 Strategies Identify 2 Moral Force tactics that failed – Sacred Month – was called off 1842 – NCA – by end of 1842 the economy was reviving, leadership collapsing and popular support declining 1848 – Land Plan – shut down by gov when found legal technicality 1839,42,48 – National Convention – e.g. Feb 1839 immediately splits occurred over moral v physical force – failed to meet aims Identify 1 Physical Force tactic that failed – Plug Plots and Riots – industrial sabotage 1839 – Newport Rising – November – 20 marchers killed – 500 arrested How could you argue that the decision not to stage the Sacred month was A) Pragmatic or idea scared away several Chartist delegates (esp Middle classes), potential to wreck economy (direct attack on employers/gov), probably would have led to physical confrontation and troops being used, possible deaths, Attwood declared he “washed his hands of any idea, of any appeal to physical force” B) Cowardly gave in to government pressures – angered physical force chartists

70 Tactics Give an example of where the “language of menace” might be used. Give an example of “defensive violence” How could both of these be justified by the Chartists?

71 Tactics Give an example of where the “language of menace” might be used. Many meetings held before Chartist Convention had used the language of menace Birmingham meeting May 1839 – “No blood shall be shed by us: but if our enemies shed blood – if they attack the people – they must take the consequences upon their heads” Give an example of “defensive violence” Adopted by many Chartist leaders summed up by the slogan “peacefully if we can, forcefully if we must” 1839 London Metropolitan Police were used to break up a peaceful Chartist Meeting in Birmingham it led to 2 weeks of rioting. William Lovett produced a placard accusing authorities of a “flagrant and unjust using of bloody and unconstitutional force” he was arrested for seditious libel and sentenced to 1 year in prison How could both of these be justified by the Chartists? Not a clear cut division between moral and physical force. O’Connor is often associated with physical force and yet he primarily advocated a peaceful approach

72 Failure Find 3 things from this research that might have contributed to the failure of Chartism. Disputes between leaders – O’Connor was main inspiration behind NCA and Northern Star – dominated movement in 1840s – O’Connor denounced Lovetts moderation and attacked ‘new move’ – He alienated most other Chartist leaders Divisions over tactics – Basic division between moral and physical force Chartists – Moral Chartists – mainly from skilled artisans and they had to be careful not to alienate middle classes – Physical force – believed threat or use of violence were only way to gain success Repression – Gove made full use of powers to arrest and detain Chartists (especially in 1839/40, 42, 48) – Chartist leaders were under almost constant threat of imprisonment – Demonstrations were dispersed by regular army and new professional police force – Kennington Common demonstration (April 1848) – Chartists tried to over awe in numbers met by police, special constables and soldiers Reform – Chartist message stemmed from peoples troubles and government tried to undermine this. Peel’s policies (1841-6) and Whig gov of Russell ( ) – Mines Act (1842), Factory Acts (1844 and 7), Repeal of Corn Laws (1846) – These all indicated that the gov were beginning to rule in the interests of the people as a whole

73 Christmas Homework: Strategies and Tactics Resources: Both Chapter 7s 1.Single Sheet on Chartist Strategies 2.Read ‘The Ideology of Chartism’ and complete questions Due: 6/1/14

74 What progress did Chartism make? From both texts find out:- 1.Why the NCA was so important 2.What the New Move was, why it began and why it was opposed by some Chartists. 3.What the Land Plan was, why you think it was popular and why it failed. 4.Read the biography of O`Connor and highlight the things that contributed to Chartism`s success and any that might have contributed to failure.

75 What progress did Chartism make? From both texts find out:- 1.Why the NCA was so important? (set up after it was recognised that stronger central organisation was needed. O’Connor continued to write for Northern Star despite being in prison and he encouraged establishment of NCA. Set up in 1840 it became the most important Chartist organisation and by 1842 had 50,000 members and 400 branches) 2.What the New Move was, why it began and why it was opposed by some Chartists. (promoted the education of working classes, William Lovett, he devised a scheme with schools, libraries and teacher training colleges, He argued that working classes had to prove, by self improvement, that they were responsible citizens which would then calm the fears of the propertied classes – “moral force”. O’Connor attacked the ‘new moves’ because he saw them as distracting attention from petitioning backed by weight of numbers) 3.What the Land Plan was, why you think it was popular and why it failed. (1845 Chartist Land Plan. O'Connor's Chartist Land Company was a scheme set up in rural Chartist communities. Chartists were invited to buy shares in the company and if their names were drawn by the lot they would receive plots of land to cultivate. Among the Industrial working classes this was popular. By ,000 people had subscribed and 5 communities set up each with homes, schools and parks. But the authorities hounded O’Connor and his company. They failed to discover malpractice but did find a legal technicality which enabled them to wind up the company.) 4.Read the biography of O`Connor and highlight the things that contributed to Chartism`s success and any that might have contributed to failure. (SUCCESS – MP for County Cork in Ireland, set up Chartist Land Plan, MP for Nottingham, trained lawyer, set up Northern Star – most widely read chartist Newspaper, he appointed and paid agents to work in parts of county – act as full time organisers, profits from paper were used to pay expenses of Chartists on trial or help families of those imprisoned, powerful speaker, 20,000 attended his funeral. FAILURE – Irish landowning family, arrogant, “rabble-rouser”, Lovett and other Chartist leaders criticised violence of his language and his unrealistic expectations.)

76 Chartism Leadership

77 Who were the leaders? Learning Objectives: To evaluate the leadership of O`Connor To learn about other leaders To try and decide whether leadership could be a reason for the failure of Chartism

78 Chartism – Physical Force? Q0&feature=fvw Q0&feature=fvw What is the message of this anthem?

79 What have you learned? What were the Plug Plots ? Name 2 different types of Chartism that were part of the “New Moves” What was the thinking behind the Land Plan ?

80 Feargus O` Connor Looking at Source C – what are the key points that Gammage makes? How reliable is this source? Using Source E – how does the author defend O`Connor?

81 O`Connor Evil geniusBrilliant Leader A troublemakerA national leader

82 Leadership Use the chapter on Chartist Leaders to complete a table about what they believed. In your group take 1 leader each and fill in the table about them. Group 1 Thomas, Charlotte, Jas, Sophie, Katie Group 2 Catherine, Daniel, Jacob Arkell, Warren, Fabian Group 3 Hannah, Shirley, Rosie, Matthew Group 4 Elizabeth, Kieran, Millie, Jacob Atwell, Bethany

83 Leaders compared Attitude to -LovettO`Connor Harney Bronterre o` Brien Moral / Physical force The vote was a right / had to be earned Involved in violence links to other groups

84 Leaders How much agreement was there between the leaders? How effective do you think the leadership of Chartism was?

85 Leadership Watch this short film about Chartism and one of the local leaders – Thomas Cooper What can you learn about why Chartism fails?

86 William Lovett

87 Feargus O` Connor

88 Thomas Cooper

89 Thomas Attwood

90 George Harney

91 Bronterre O’Brien

92 Leadership Lovett and O`Connor were quite different. Is this a good thing or a bad thing for Chartism?

93 What do sources say about Chartist Leadership?

94 SOURCE 1 (From Feargus O`Connor Irishman and Chartist, 1961, by Donald Read and Eric Glasgow) O`Connor`s egocentricity (self-centredness) can be conceded at once. He wanted to be unquestioned leader. Yet as soon as the Charter was launched a demagogue leader was needed. Lovett could not play the part: O`Connor was excellently equipped to do so … In creating the Chartist movement as a popular agitation, O`Connor contributed little original philosophy … But he was not he first, nor the last, politician to advocate foolish policies. Another charge against O`Connor has been that his language was exaggerated. Three lines of defence are open here. Firstly, all popular movements require loud language to keep them going. Secondly, we must not forget the terrible conditions of the time. Finally, up to a point at least, it was deliberate bluff. O`Connor knew, as Lovett did not, that Government would never concede the Charter to a quiet movement. He hoped to frighten them.

95 SOURCE 2 (From 1848 by John Saville, 1987) No-one matched O`Connor in the qualities demanded of a national leader. He was a superb platform speaker with a splendid presence, wonderfully racy and vivid in his language, and wildly funny both on the platform and in his writings. Many historians have seen only his braggadocio (boasting), the … expressions of prophecies and claims that could never be fulfilled. But much more important was the confidence that (he) generated among the poor and downtrodden. It was this crucial belief in the righteousness of the cause, and his ability to communicate it in unequalled terms, that allowed O`Connor to tower above his fellow Chartists.

96 SOURCE 3 (From The Life and Struggles of William Lovett by William Lovett, 1876) I regard Feargus O`Connor as the chief marplot (troublemaker) of our movement … By his great professions, by trickery and deceit, he got the aid of the working classes to establish an organ to promulgate (make known) their principles, which he soon converted into an instrument for destroying everything intellectual and moral in our movement … the Star, a mere reflex of the nature of its master.

97 Chartism Reasons for Failure

98 What reasons contributed to the failure of Chartism? Learning Objectives: To learn about the reasons for the failure of Chartism

99 Reason for Failure: Leadership How effective do you think the leadership of Chartism was ? Watch this short film about Chartism and one of the local leaders – Thomas Cooper What can you learn about why Chartism fails?

100 Other reasons for failure The failure of Chartism might not just be because of poor leadership; it could be because of economic or political reasons. Your task is to research some key factors and present them to the rest of the class next week. This research will enable you all to answer a (b) type essay question on the reasons for the failure of Chartism.

101 Reasons for failure Peel`s economic policies / recovery Jacob Arkell, Charlotte and Jas Government control of troops / railways Thomas and Hannah, Inconsistency of support Matthew and Catherine Lack of middle class support / lack of parliamentary support Jacob Atwell and Elizabeth Land Plan / Failure of Petitions Shirley, Warren and Katie Peel`s Social Reforms Daniel and Bethany Firm Government Policy /arrests Fabian and Millie Hunger Politics Sophie, Rosie and Kieran

102 Task Prepare a Power Point presentation Include an explanation of what your factor is and give accurate details about it. Include quotes from historians if you can Give an opposing view if you can Decide how important your factor is as a possible reason for the failure of Chartism Provide handouts for the group and put it on the shared area for others to download

103 Failure Consider whether the failure of Chartism was inevitable.

104 Land Plan / Failure of Petitions Revived fortunes of Chartists Creation of rural communities for Chartists Set up 1845 Chartists were invited to buy shares in the Chartist Land Company By ,000 people were registered subscribers – names drawn by lot and their families settled in a Chartist Community 5 communities were set up – each with schools, parks, public baths It was an alternative to waged employment But poor administration Government was hostile O’Connor acted with integrity – no foul play – it owed him £23,000! But company wound up by an Act of Parliament O’Connor died in – used 7000 soldiers, 4000 police and 85,000 special constables to guard bridges and railway stations Lack of Middle Class Support Physical Force meant most Middle Class refused to support Chartism They had their own organisation ACLL (Anti-Corn Law League) and it was successful Middle Classes were content as they HAD the vote, so did not want their property attacked Whig strategy of linking upper and middle classes had succeeded The Middle Classes were always tentative In 1839 before the Charter was presented, 14 of the Middle Class delegates had resigned from the Convention and were replaced by Working Class men Middle Classes frightened by the prospect of working class power Lack of Parliamentary Support 1839, 1842 and 1848 rejection by Parliament The establishment felt they had changed the constitution once and did not want to do it again Number of candidates stood in General Election of 1847 but only O’Connor elected for Nottingham Inconsistency of support Strong in North, weak in South – so no real support in the capital – yet this is vital for success No real co-ordinated strategy North – physical force Birmingham – Complete Suffrage Union and Moral Force Scotland – Christian Chartism So the government are able to divide and rule successfully Regions were too diverse, work force too divided Government control of troops / railways 1842 – Public disorder – economic downturn General strike across Northern England Government reacted fearing a conspiracy – they moved towards a state of emergency Troops were dispatched by railway, planned demos were stopped by Police and the army Political state really strong – Police and Army loyal to government National Police Force by 1839 Telegraph was used to warn authorities of danger in advance Peel`s economic policies / recovery 1841 He inherited a deficit of £7.5 million – economy was in deep depression 1842 budget – income tax 3p in the £ on incomes over £150 – special sacrifice on behalf of the wealthier members of society This cleared the deficit – allowed him to lower tariffs Import duties (trade) cut – economic recovery and social stability He aimed to stimulate domestic industrial production and improve working class standard of living 1843 – recovery began and by 1844 he had a surplus of £4 million He saw fiscal policy as a remedy for poverty and unrest He saw economic liberalism as a means of maintaining social and political order He was affected by reports of poverty in 1842 and so felt free trade was essential Peel`s Social Reforms 1844 Factory Act passed (not 10 working hours!) – Peel was reluctant to intervene against preventing profitability of Cotton Factories as this might stop economic recovery Mines Act of Act (Russell’s Government) – 10 hours Act 1846 Corn Laws Repealed Rising wages, increased food consumption, living standards improved Showed government was in fact reforming itself in the interests of the people – so was Chartism really needed anymore? Does it fail because it became irrelevant? Firm Government Policy /arrests Ringleaders arrested in 1842 Scores of leaders were arrested and imprisoned or sent to Australia Graham (Home Secretary) extended local Police Force Used Government agents to gather info – aimed to have state-trial but it was dropped Chartist leaders under almost constant risk of imprisonment Special Constables recruited – came from Middle Classes Nearly 500 people put in prison between 1839 – 1841 Hunger Politics Greatest support when 3 petitions presented (1839,42 and 48) were also times of economic depression After 1850, Chartism declined and standards of living had improved BUT – what about the “rank and file” who were peaceful? Many were committed to self-improvement and education Criticism of O’Connor and his followers – then “dog like devotion”

105 Failure Use the Fishbone Diagram to identify why Chartism failed. Start by thinking of all the reasons and write them on post-it notes. Then classify them into 4 main causes of failure. Now display them on the diagram

106 ReformsGovernment Actions Failure of Chartism Lack of SupportLack of Leadership/direction Troops were dispatched by railway, planned demos were stopped by Police and the army. The political state was really strong with the Police and Army loyal to government. Ringleaders arrested in 1842 and Chartist leaders under almost constant risk of imprisonment Special Constables recruited – came from Middle Classes Nearly 500 people put in prison between 1839 – 1841 There were different types of Chartism. Birmingham – Complete Suffrage Union and Moral Force, in Scotland – Christian Chartism. Regions were too diverse, work force too divided Strong in North, weak in South – so no real support in the capital – yet this is vital for success and there was no real co-ordinated strategy Physical Force meant most Middle Class refused to support Chartism They had their own organisation ACLL (Anti- Corn Law League) and it was successful. Middle Classes were content as they HAD the vote, so did not want their property attacked. 1839, 1842 and 1848 rejection by Parliament The establishment felt they had changed the constitution once and did not want to do it again. Number of candidates stood in General Election of 1847 but only O’Connor elected for Nottingham He saw economic liberalism as a means of maintaining social and political order and he was affected by reports of poverty in 1842 and so felt free trade was essential He aimed to stimulate domestic industrial production and improve working class standard of living Showed government was in fact reforming itself in the interests of the people – so was Chartism really needed anymore?

107 Question B Look at the question and highlight the key words. (Do you agree that the Chartist Movement was a failure?) Jan 2010 Highlight N,P, O in the sources. Remember to include accurate factual details from the powerpoints and your own reading.


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