Communication and interaction Sensory and/or physical needs Cognition and learning Social,emotional and mental health needs Based on DfE and DoH (2014) Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice: 0 – 25 years. London: DfE and DoH. 97-98
DfE and DoH (2014) Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice: 0 – 25 years. London: DfE and DoH. 98
Why has the Department for Education changed the terminology from Behaviour, Emotional and Social Difficulties (BESD) to Social, Emotional and Mental Health (SEMH)?
Education Health Care child, young person and his/her family The identification of ‘need’
'Maladjustment' was seen as a 'handicap' requiring 'special educational treatment' in the regulations following the Education Act, 1944.
Underwood, J. E. A. (1955) Report of the Committee on Maladjusted Children. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 22. A further difficulty arises from the fact that a wide variety of medical and social services play a part in the prevention and treatment of maladjustment; and our enquiry has taken us beyond the boundaries of the education service. It was essential to survey children in all their relationships, from their first years, before we could consider what can and should be done within the educational system to cope with maladjustment.
Recommendation 1. There should be a comprehensive child guidance service available for the area of every local education authority, involving a school psychological service, the school health service and child guidance clinic(s), all of which should work in close co-operation.
Warnock, M. (1978) Special Educational Needs: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO
1981 Education Act The emphasis was on mainstream schooling for all children. Perceptions of children with ‘emotional and behavioural difficulties’, the term (used in the 1955 Underwood Report) that replaced ‘maladjusted’, were also changing. The condition was now seen as part of a continuum, with a growing realisation that social and educational conditions contributed to many children's difficulties http://www.sebda.org/about-sebda/history/http://www.sebda.org/about-sebda/history/ [accessed 15.01.15]
The Elton Report 1989 29 A small minority of pupils have such severe and persistent behaviour problems as a result of emotional, psychological or neurological disturbance that their needs cannot be met in mainstream schools. In such cases the way forward is for the LEA to assess the pupil's needs and produce a statement which confirms that the pupil has emotional and behavioural difficulties and specifies the alternative provision to be made for that pupil elsewhere. Elton, R. (1989) Discipline in schools. London: HMSO
Department for Education (1994) The Education of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, Circular 9/94, London: DFE. ‘Such difficulties lie on the continuum between behaviour which challenges teachers but is within the normal, albeit unacceptable, bounds and that which is indicative of serious mental illness.’
BESD 1994 Code of Practice: Behaviour, emotional and social difficulties 2001 Code of Practice ‘…clear recorded examples of withdrawn or disruptive behaviour; a marked and persistent inability to concentrate; signs that the child experiences considerable frustration or distress in relation to their learning difficulties; difficulties in establishing and maintaining balanced relationships with their fellow pupils or with adults; and any other evidence of a significant delay in the development of life and social skills.’
The exact definition of BESD is a much-debated subject – even the arrangement of the B, E, S and D varies between organisations. The previous DCSF, and currently the DfE, prefer to use the acronym BESD, while SEBDA (Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Association) argue that ‘the “social” and “emotional” generally give rise to the “behaviour” and should be stressed first’ (Cole 2006: 1). The view can also be taken that placing the B first, draws unnecessary attention to the behaviour, detracting from the emotions behind it (Cole & Knowles, 2011). Peaston, H. (2011) Mainstream inclusion, special challenges: strategies for children with BESD. Nottingham: National College Cole, T. (2006), Appendix 1 from SEBDA (Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Association) 2006 Business Plan [online]. Available from: www.sebda.org/resources/articles/DefiningSEBD.pdf [accessed 29 July 2010] Cole, T. & Knowles, B. (2011), How to Help Children and Young People with Complex Behavioural Difficulties. London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers
https://www.gov.uk/gov ernment/uploads/system /uploads/attachment_da ta/file/326551/Mental_H ealth_and_Behaviour_- _Information_and_Tools _for_Schools_final_webs ite__2__25-06-14.pdf DfE (2014) Mental health and behaviour in schools: departmental advice for school staff. London: DfE
What is the current state of mental health among children and young people? The most recent national survey of mental health among children and young people in Britain was carried out in 2004 by the Office for National Statistics and published by the Health and Social Care Information Centre.
The House of Commons Health Committee has undertaken a review of Children and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS): http://www.publicatio ns.parliament.uk/pa/c m201415/cmselect/cm health/342/342.pdf