Introduction The search for sustainable energy will dominate the twenty-first century. Sustainability is related to the quality of life in a community -- whether the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community are providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. Due to the nature of solar energy, two components are required to have a functional solar energy generator. Methods of collecting and storing solar energy vary depending on the uses planned for the solar generator. Generally a building that is heated by solar power will have its water heated by solar power as well. Solar cooling is far more expensive than solar heating, so it is almost never seen in private homes. Most of our tools are designed to be driven by electricity, so if you can create electricity through solar power, you can run almost anything with solar power. Hope for bulk solar electricity should not be abandoned for recent scientific advances have created a solar cell with an efficiency of 28.2%4 efficiency in the laboratory. The only possible way a car could be completely solar powered would be through the use of battery that was charged by solar power at some stationary point and then later loaded into the car. As the primary element of construction of solar panels, silicon, is the second most common element on the planet, there is very little environmental disturbance caused by the creation of solar panels. (URL 1, 2)
1.British Museum, London Project details building type: cultural construction, museum support structure construction: frame construction roof construction: pitched roof support structure material: steel/aluminium, glass roof material: metal, glass, steel topic: roof construction, lightweight constructions issue no.: 05/2000
2.Jubilee Campus, University of Nottingham Location: Nottingham, United Kingdom Architect: Hopkins Architects (formerly Michael Hopkins and Partners), http://www.hopkins.co.uk/ Date Completed: 1999 Client: University of Nottingham Surface Area: 45,000m2 Budget: £50m Environmental and Structural Engineering: ARUP, http://www.arup.com/ Landscape Designers: Battle McCarthy, http://www.battlemccarthy.com/ Quantity Surveyor: Gardiner and Theobald Construction Manager: Bovis Midlands The environmentally-friendly nature of the campus has been a big factor in the awards that it has received, which include: Millennium Marque – Award for Environmental Excellence 1999 Nottingham Lord Mayors Awards – Special Award 2000 British Construction Industry Awards (BCIA) – Building Project of the Year 2000 Hot Dip Galvanising Award 2000 UK Solar Award 2001 Aluminium Imagination Awards 2001 Commendation RIBA Award 2001 RIBA Journal Sustainability Award 2001 Civic Trust Awards – Special Award for Sustainability 2002 Energy Globe Awards 2002
4.. THE BLACK HOUSE Clad in Eternit pre-painted corrugated fibre cement sheeting (which unusually also covers the roof) this three-storey five-bedroom eco-house impressed the 2004 Manser Medal Judges who declared: “This one-off house is an exemplar to the house--building industry of how to design a low-cost low –energy dwelling with generous accommodation, where every square metre of floor space justifies its cost.” Of light-weight timber-frame structure on concrete piled foundations The Black House took just four days to erect and the whole building programme took just eight months from start to finish. This lightweight structure meant that the number of piles in the foundation could be reduced, minimising the amount of concrete and therefore the energy required. Instead of a conventional ring beam, a timber glulam beam (visible at the base of the building) was bolted to the pile caps with high tensile steel rods. The timber studs, joists and rafters are made as I-sections from timber waste, producing strong lightweight beams with minimal environmental impact. This allows the simple roof construction that is visible in the top floor, which is lit by Velux rooflights fitted with blinds to minimise glare. The main internal cross walls of the house, which were designed to provide structural strength, were factory made Masonite Beam Panels, and the intermediate floors were also Mansonite Beam floor cassettes, where the thickness and high performance insulation made from 100 per cent recycled newspaper deliver exceptionally low consumption of energy. The windows are double-glazed with argon filled cavities and a low –emissivity coating on the glass reflects heat back into the house. “The first rule for a low energy--house is to use plenty of insulation,” explains architect Meredith Bowles “The global imperative to reduce green house gases can be effected in real terms by designing buildings that require less energy to run. What is often overlooked, however, is that a building that responds well to the environment is often more comfortable to live in,” he says “ A good building should lift one’s spirits.”
5. Tate Modern in London building type: cultural construction, museum support structure construction: frame construction facade construction: building envelope roof construction: flat roof support structure material: steel/aluminium facade material: bricks interior work material: glass topic: refurbishment issue no.: 04/2000cultural constructionmuseumframe constructionbuilding envelopeflat roofsteel/aluminiumbricksglassrefurbishment04/2000
7.Freiburg-Vauban „Solar settlement at Schlierberg “ The settlement at Schlierberg is in direct vicinity of the Vauban area, approx. 3 km from the city centre of Freiburg. On the 38 hectare area, housing and living space for different social groups is being created in compacted construction. Among the main measures of the so- called “Model Urban District Vauban” are: mobility concept reducing the number of cars, sustainable water management, energy-conscious construction, building waste management, promotion of joint building projects and cooperative building and the design of a cooperative planning process. The energy-optimised new settlement has been in development on the former sports area of the Vauban barracks since 1999. “In the solar settlement at Schlierberg, the future of solar building and living in harmony with nature is already reality” - this is the slogan of the building and project organiser “Solarsiedlung GmbH” (Solar Settlement GmbH) for this settlement which produces solar energy. The measures include 58 surplus energy houses. 43 of these had been built by the beginning of 2003. The solar settlement is a trend-setting pilot project for solar building and living. The 2 to 3-storey wood construction buildings are in rows aligned to the south and are built in accordance with the high requirements of passive house standards. An individual design, the use of natural building materials and striking colours give the settlement a distinctive look.
To shield the settlement from the main road, the so-called “Sonnenschiff” (Solar Ship), a living and business house, is planned (begin of construction in the spring of 2003). The heat supply is currently covered by the wood chip fuelled power plant of the urban district Vauban. With the erection of the “Solar Ship”, heat generation through solar panels and a combined heat and power unit fuelled by biomass is planned. YearEvent March 1994Statutes for the urban planning development measure "Vauban" 1996Set-up of the legally binding land-use plan with ecological criteria April 1998Foundation of Solarsiedlung GmbH 1999Start of construction 2000Key project of the EXPO participation of the solar region at the Upper Rhine 2005Planned completion of the whole settlement This solar settlement supplies the proof for the feasibility of a “Surplus energy house settlement” - an ecologically oriented, energy-efficient construction in modern solar architecture enables a positive energy balance. Passive house standards and the most modern energy technology are combined with the commercial operation of solar power plants.
8. The 'Gherkin' The Gherkin is the popular nickname for the office block opened in 2004 at No.30 St Mary Axe. The road is named after the nearby Church of St Mary Axe (the 'axe' part referring to a relic kept in the church). The skin (1) of the building is double-glazed and the space between the glazing is ventilated to help with temperature control and reducing energy use. The Gherkin is said to use only half the energy of similar sized office towers. Most of the panes of glass are completely flat - the only curved glass is the 'lens' (2) at the very top. The spiralling pattern (3) results from the floor layout within. Each floor has been rotated 5degrees relative to the floor below. The top of the tower has been kept as an open space to give an uninterrupted, all-round view. The lift gear has been moved from its usual site at the top down to a lower floor, and separate 'push' lifts need to be used for the last part of the journey.
9. Berlin’s GSW Headquarter... Located in Berlin’s Kreuzberg neighborhood, the GSW Headquarters consists of an ensemble of five distinct architectural volumes. The building also houses Checkpoint Energy, which is the city’s spot for the citizens to consult on energy saving, thermal insulation, renewable energies, switching energy suppliers and more! A non-profit initiative by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and the Consumer Federation, the center — which charges €5 for 30 minutes — gets its own advice from a network of experienced architects, engineers and physicists. Aiming for climate protection and resources conservation, this energy-consulting center is an important step forward towards an energy-conscious future. Located on the Checkpoint Energy’s west side is the GSW Headquarter’s building, which glows in different hues of red and pink. Designed by Sauerbruch Hutton, this passive renovated 22-story office building was designed to get free cross ventilation and passively control its energy usage. It is said to be the world’s first thermally- flued tall building and can have natural ventilation for up to 70 percent of the year, making it more sustainable and economical to run. Berlin-based architects Sauerbruch Hutton have renovated an office tower from the 1950's into a 165,000-square foot office block. The impressive building features a double-skin thermal flue on the west-facing façade, cross ventilation east west and automatically and manually-operated triple-glazed windows with between-pane blinds, enabling the building to achieve energy savings of 30-40 percent.
10. SOLAR UMBRELLA, USA Nestled amidst a neighbourhood of single story bungalows in Venice, California, the Solar Umbrella Residence boldly establishes a precedent for the next generation of California modernist architecture. The Solar Umbrella transforms an existing 650 square foot bungalow into a 1900 square foot residence equipped for responsible living in the twenty- first century. Inspired by Paul Rudolph's Umbrella House of 1953, the Solar Umbrella provides a contemporary reinvention of the solar canopy - a strategy that provides thermal protection in climates with intense exposures. Integral to the design are principles of sustainability and the building takes advantage of as many opportunities for sustainable living as possible. Passive and active solar design strategies render the residence 100% energy neutral. Recycled, renewable, and high performance materials and products are specified throughout. In this multi award winning house sustainability was made a top priority, with the goal being responsible living for the 21st century. The Solar Umbrella home was built for principals Lawrence Scarpa and Angela Brooks to house themselves and their young son. But even considering all of Solar Umbrella's individual sustainable features, none can compete with the simple fact that the architects' comprehensive, holistic approach to the design raises the whole well above the sum of its parts. Careful, thorough consideration of environmental, livability, and aesthetic factors at every step of the design and implementation have produced a true exemplar of sustainable design excellence.
11. New Sidwell Middle School a Living Component to D.C. Campus Sustainable design a perfect fit for education institution’s green philosophy Summary: Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C., recently opened its new sustainable middle school and is seeking to earn LEED® Platinum certification by the U.S. Green Building Council. The three-level, U-shaped, 70,000-square-foot school renovates an existing middle school and merges it with a new wing, forming one green-designed structure. Sustainable materials are implemented throughout the exterior and interior. An open courtyard defines the building structure by integrating the campus with the local landscape. Philadelphia-based KieranTimberlake Associates worked with Sidwell to incorporate the school’s Quaker philosophy—to be stewards of the Earth—into the green design. The new school and its campus will also serve as a sustainable education tool for students.
Sidwell’s other sustainable features include: Douglas fir from old high school bleachers used for window framing Vine-covered walls and screens on the building’s west end Bamboo doors and cabinets Lights that adjust to sunlight Hall reflectors that bounce sunlight into classrooms at the perfect angle to provide light but not heat A ventilation system that can freshen air based the amount of CO2 released by people breathing in the room.
The green roof. A vegetable-garden rooftop on the new wing serves as an insulator and is part of the water recycling system. “The green roof is also a food garden, managed by the students and teachers,” adds Kieran. Sustainable materials every material in the building is either reclaimed or recycled. “The cladding of the building is 100-year-old western red cedar reclaimed from wine barrels,” Kieran notes. “Material for the walkways, inside lobby, and decks is green lumber pilings reclaimed from the Baltimore Harbor. There is extensive use of linoleum, cork, and reclaimed stone. We have displays throughout the building about the source of the materials and why they are renewable.”
12. Arkin-Tilt Architects, Eastern Sierra Residence, Gardnerville, Nevada, United States Passive and active technologies come together to create an energy- efficient and environmentally responsive home in a hot, arid climate with cold winter winds, east of the Sierra Nevada Mountain range. In this region of the United States, which on average sees over three hundred sunny days a year, solar energy is ideal. On the south side of the house, an angled row of seven collector panels carry a heat- absorbing fluid to a heat exchanger. The tubes then form loops in sand beds under the floor plate of the home to warm the interior space through radiation. No fossil fuels are required. Integrated photovoltaic laminates are installed on the sloped standing seam metal roof to provide electricity for the house. The support brackets are adjustable, so the panels may be rotated to catch seasonal sun angles and help shed the build-up of snow.
1 Solar hot water collection 2 Heat exchange for domestic hot water 3 Thermal storage sand bed 4 Night flush cooling 5 High clerestory 6 Passive solar heat gain 7 Glass floor tiles for daylight 8 PV array shades trellis 9 Roof-integrated PV laminates 10 Trombe wall warms batteries 11 Inverters connect to grid 12 Greenhouse adds humidity (URL3).
13. The Solaire - 20 River Terrace Project Name: The Solaire - 20 River Terrace Year: 2003 Owner: Albanese Development Corp and Northwestern Mutual Life Corp Location: New York, NY, USA Building Type: Multi-Family Residential Type: Extensive & Intensive System: Single Source Provider Size: 9400 sq.ft. Slope: 1.25% Access: Accessible, Private Submitted by: Greenroofs.com/Balmori Associates Designers/Manufacturers of Record: Landscape Architect: Balmori Associates, Inc. Design Architects: Cesar Pelli and Associates Greenroof System: American Hydrotech Developer: Russell Albanese
Located in lower Manhattan in Battery Park City, the 27-story, glass-and-brick Solaire residential tower is directly adjacent to the site of the former World Trade Center, and meets both the recently enacted New York State Green Building Tax Credit and USGBC Gold LEED certification (41 points). Completed in August 2003, the Solaire is also the first green residential high-rise in North America. The building was designed by Rafael Pelli, of Cesar Pelli & Associates, in response to an ambitious set of new guidelines for green architecture developed by the Battery Park City Authority. This green residential tower introduced a new interconnection between architecture, its urban setting and the landscape.
Bamboo Garden; Photo Courtesy Balmori AssociatesBamboo Garden; Photo Courtesy Balmori Associates The American Hydrotech Garden Roof system was used on both rooftops and was comprised of a hot-applied rubberized waterproof membrane, root barrier, layer of insulation, a drainage / water retention / aeration layer, filter fabric, and lightweight growing medium (expanded mineral components by Stalite mixed with organic material). The design of the terrace garden was centered around four large masses of bamboo. The selected species are well adapted to shallow soil and produce dense root zones enabling them to anchor into the soil and withstand strong winds (URL3).
Conclusion Solar Buildings are Main Players in the Mitigation of Climate Changes (IPCC RET Special Report) Substantial Scientific and Technological Progress was achieved in the last Decades (Zero & EnergyPlus Buildings) Focus on Refurbishment, Electricity Demand and Embodied Energy is required (Growing Concerns) Future Research Efforts must address the Integration of Solar Technologies in the Built Environment (Dissemination) (pro.Dr Jean-, 2009.)
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