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Engaging home and international students: a practical theory Dr Rachel Scudamore.

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1 Engaging home and international students: a practical theory Dr Rachel Scudamore

2 By the end of the workshop participants will be able to: explain how previous educational experience can impact on student expectations; identify their own assumptions and preferences; plan for introducing new teaching strategies in their own practice. 2 Intended outcomes

3 Timetable 1.30Introductions Internationalisation Teaching, learning and diversity “Culture” and students 3.00Tea 3.15Practical teaching strategies Assessment and feedback 4.15Summary and conclusions 4.30Close

4 Internationalisation: meanings More / different students Changes in who you’re teaching, how they learn and what they expect from a UK education Internationalising the curriculum Putting the discipline in a wider context (broader sources, application in a range of contexts) Graduates with a “global outlook” An outcome of studying an internationalised curriculum in an internationally mixed student / staff body

5 International students in the UK https://www.hesa.ac.uk/sfr210

6 From: Handal & Lauvas (1987) Promoting reflective teaching. SRHE & OUP P3 Ethical / political justification P2 Theory-based / Practice-based reasons P1 Action Values Experiences, transferred knowledge etc. Practical theory Action in teaching Teaching practice A “practical theory”

7 Internationalisation: questions What do we mean by “International” students & “Home” students International students = more diversity (true?) Why do students go to University? What does learning mean?

8 Geert Hofstede

9 Separating observation and interpretation Identity collectivism / individualism Hierarchy larger / smaller “power distance” Gender masculine / feminine approach to role distribution Truth uncertainty avoidance / uncertainty tolerance Virtue long-term orientation / short-term orientation Hofstede’s “value dimensions” of culture

10 Geert Hofstede

11 Individual studies

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13 Communicate about: Learning outcomes Assessment Examples Perspectives Talk about: Previous experiences Expectations Groundrules Collaboration Culture and teaching? Culture as valuesCulture as behaviour

14 High context Low context Focus on relationshipsTasks separate from relationships Greater use of non-verbal communication and implicit meanings Highly structured and detailed messages Values group sense Values individual initiative and decision-making The purpose of communication ? High / Low context cultures After Hall (1977)

15 lack of interest lack of ideas unwillingness to communicate shyness lack of confidence different way to participate reaction to others’ contributions respect for authority / modesty feeling inarticulate Perceptions of silence Silence as…

16 Face: a public identity Brown & Levinson (1978) PositiveNegative Politeness strategies Express interest, approval, sympathy Seek agreement Use in-group identifiers Raise common ground Show knowledge of others’ concerns Assume / assert reciprocity De-personalise the participants Give deference Declare an indebtedness Minimise any impositions Politeness and “face” After Brown and Levinson (1978)

17 “a sudden immersion into a non-specific state of uncertainty where the individual is not sure what is expected of him or her, nor what to expect from other people. It can occur in any situation where an individual is forced to adjust to an unfamiliar social system where previous learning no longer applies” Hofstede, Pedersen & Hofstede (2002) Culture shock, learning shock

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19 Student expectations of teaching at Nottingham

20 From: Handal & Lauvas (1987) Promoting reflective teaching. SRHE & OUP P3 Ethical / political justification P2 Theory-based / Practice-based reasons P1 Action Values Experiences, transferred knowledge etc. Practical theory Action in teaching Teaching practice A “practical theory”

21 Why do students consider leaving? HEFCE funded HERE! Project: NTU, Bournemouth & Bradford

22 Current course experiences HEFCE funded HERE! Project: NTU, Bournemouth & Bradford

23 Course is interesting/fun Motivation Tutor / staff support Course mates Achievements Future goals/prospects Friends Family support Lack of options Reasons for staying I realise what I’m getting out of it, I can see the jobs I can have Getting tutor support [and] peer support kind of broke some barriers I had about managing my studies It’s become less anxiety and more freedom to learn and to do things on my own...not just because someone tells me to HEFCE funded HERE! Project: NTU, Bournemouth & Bradford

24 “What makes people doubt is not the same as what makes them want to stay.” Helen May & Liz Thomas (2010) What works? Student retention and success. HEFCE report. Retention through engagement

25 Approaches to engaging students Principles drawn from theories of learning  Students taking ownership  Use of previous knowledge  Social interaction

26 Constructive learning

27 From: Handal & Lauvas (1987) Promoting reflective teaching. SRHE & OUP P3 Ethical / political justification P2 Theory-based / Practice-based reasons P1 Action Values Experiences, transferred knowledge etc. Practical theory Action in teaching Teaching practice A “practical theory”

28 Evidence-based teaching From: Hattie (2009) cited in Atherton (2011)

29 Evidence-based teaching After Hattie (2009) cited in Petty (2009) Influence Effect SizeSource of Influence Feedback1.13Teacher Students’ prior cognitive ability 1.04Student Instructional quality1.00Teacher Direct instruction.82Teacher Remediation/feedback.65Teacher Students' disposition to learn.61Student Class environment.56Teacher Challenge of Goals.52Teacher Peer tutoring.50Teacher

30 From: Handal & Lauvas (1987) Promoting reflective teaching. SRHE & OUP P3 Ethical / political justification P2 Theory-based / Practice-based reasons P1 Action Values Experiences, transferred knowledge etc. Practical theory Action in teaching Teaching practice A “practical theory”

31 What are lectures for? Lectures

32 Explicitness Structure Clarity Variety Challenging Responsiveness Learning outcomes Signposts, framing Pace, glossary Audiovisual mix Questions Answers Lecturing: a performance What’s important?How do I do it?

33 Questions and activities in lectures

34 Possible collections of students (circles) into groups of three across lecture theatre rows. From: Dolan & Macias (2009) Small groups in large groups

35 Activities for use with large groups From: Surgenor (2010)

36 Identify main points Write a question Do a calculation Decide your opinion Match/group/rank Propose hypotheses Analyse a situation Suggest reasons Plan your reading Fill in the graph Label the diagram Find an example Propose your action Draw a concept map Compare/contrast Sequence/flow Participation in large groups

37 Asking questions in lectures

38 Using student response systems to improve interaction in lectures See also: Altering lectures in response to student input

39 Whole group or sub-groups (structure) Public/private? (method) Patterns for answering (method) Open vs closed questions (task setting) Questions in large groups

40 Idiomatic language in teaching

41 Bloom’s taxonomy

42 Enquiry-based learning: Task: Explore  Describe  Apply Oliver, R. & Herrington, J. (2002).

43 Barrett & Cashman (2010)

44

45

46

47 Reading academic papers: participation in tutorials

48 Cross-cultural exchange activities: getting students started: discuss your name: who gave it to you, what does it mean? sit next to someone “different” (discuss cognitive dissonance) line up (by distance from home, experience, English skills, views.) topics in a bag (experience, expectation, surprises – student Qs) identify ways to learn more about other cultures 48 Intercultural competence UKCISA (2009) Discussing difference, discovering similarities

49 Preparatory exercise on challenges/scenarios of working together: Communication preferences Use of native language Approach to time, planning, and punctuality Status and group contributions Assumptions of agreement / expression of disagreement Concepts of humour Vocal dominance Educational philosophies Successful groupwork

50 A clear task Assigned roles Manager Researcher Scribe Reporter Checker Reporting on process and product Successful groupwork

51 A collusion continuum (Jude Carroll) See also: Jude Carroll on plagiarism You have asked your students to write an individual report on one of three companies that you name. Three of your students do the following. Where do they cross the line between collaboration and collusion? 1. Come and see you to discuss what the coursework brief means. 2. Discuss the coursework brief with other students. 3. Look at how others have done similar coursework in the past. 4. Discuss the good and bad points of how others have addressed the task in the past. 5. Discuss the best way to tackle the assignment. 6. Decide to all choose the same company to write about. 7. Decide what research needs to be done on the chosen company and how to do it. 8. Decide to all do a bit of research on everything but to have specialists who really go into depth on one aspect. 9. Brief each other on what they found and on useful sources of information for others to check out. 10. Discuss what their individual research/investigation revealed and what it all means. 11. Copy each others’ scribbles and library notes. 12. Identify the arguments or points that need to be made in the report. 13. Structure the arguments; agree which are the strongest points. 14. Share out the writing task and correct each other’s drafts. 15. Pool the sections then each take the compiled first draft away and write an individual version as the final draft. 16. Submit the individually written version for a mark.

52 “Academic language… is no one's mother tongue” (Bourdieu et al., 1994) Repetition Patching Plagiphrasing Conventional academic writing Learning to write

53 Assessment design Preparing to write Teach students about academic writing and plagiarism discipline-specific examples practice exercises peer review Teach about the assessment criteria Students to mark old essays and give feedback to the author Create exercises that give you samples of the students’ writing for giving feedback for later comparison with submitted work The assessed task Require an personal approach Give unique data / situation Use novel formats Relate directly to class activity Assess in stages Literature selection with reasons Article analysis Aim and plan Draft(s) with feedback request Redraft with commentary on how feedback is addressed Check author knowledge of work Don’t permit late topic changes

54 Sample assessments Extract from

55 55 Feedback

56 56 Feedback

57 Timely ? Specific ? Constructive ? 57 Feedback

58 58 Feedback

59 59 Feedback

60 Make the learning outcomes and your assessment criteria clear Make the feedback relate to the criteria Use a range of sources for generating feedback Identify what’s done well and what to improve Set formative tasks that build towards the summative task Build in use of feedback as part of improvement 60 Feedback techniques

61 Giving feedback on practical sessions via a podcast See also: Recording feedback as a podcast and uploading it to WebCT

62 Approaches to engaging students Principles drawn from theories of learning  Students taking ownership  Use of previous knowledge  Social interaction

63 Conversations Social contact Active participation Principles for action

64 How do your students spend their time?  Listening in class  Planning their own learning  Finding answers to questions  Teaching each other  Discussing with tutor/students  ?

65 Atherton, J.S. (2011) Teaching and learning: what works best. Barrett, T. & Cashman, D. (Eds) (2010) A Practitioners’ Guide to Enquiry and Problem-based Learning. Dublin: UCD Teaching and Learning Black, P.J. & William, D. (1998) Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 5(1):7-74. Bourdieu, P. et al. "Introduction: Language and the relationship to language in the teaching situation" in Academic Discourse: Linguistic Misunderstanding and Professorial Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.. Brierley, G., Hillman, M., Devonshire, E. & Funnell, L. (2002). Description of Round Table Exercise: Environmental Decision-Making about Water Resources in Physical Geography. Available from Learning Designs Web site: Brown, P. & Levinson, S.C. (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dolan, M. & Macias, I. (2009) “Motivating international students” in The Handbook for Economics lecturers. HEA Economics Network. Hall, E. T. (1976) Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Press Handel, G. & Lauvas, P. (1987) Promoting reflective teaching. Milton Keynes: SRHE & OUP. Hattie, J. (2009) Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge. Foster, E. Et al (2012) Higher Education: retention and engagement. HEFCE funded project. retention/HERE_Project_What_Works_Final_Reporthttp://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/what-works-student- retention/HERE_Project_What_Works_Final_Report Hofstede, G. (1980) Cultures consequences: : International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P and Hofstede, G. (2002) Exploring Culture. Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures. Boston: Intercultural Press Lysgaard, S. (1955) Adjustment in a Foreign Society: Norwegian Fulbright Grantees Visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin 7: Montgomery, C. (2010) Understanding the international student experience. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan PESL (2009) Promoting Enhanced Student Learning. University of Nottingham. Petty, G. (2009) Evidence-based teaching: a practical approach (2 nd ed.). Nelson Thornes. Petty, G. (2011) Teachers toolbox. Oliver, R. & Herrington, J. (2002). Explore, Describe, Apply: A problem focussed learning design. Learning Designs Web site: Surgenor, P. (2010) Teaching toolkit: Large and small group teaching. UCD Teaching and Learning resources. Thomas (2012) Building on student engagement and belongiing in Higher Education at a time of change: a summary of findings and recommendations from the What Works? Student Retention and Success programme. HE Academy. retention/What_Works_Summary_Report.pdfhttp://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/what-works-student- retention/What_Works_Summary_Report.pdf UKCISA (2009) Discussing difference, discovering similarities. 65 References

66 Second language issues More complex curriculum design options Developing academic writing skills 66 Additional material

67 Students working in a second language

68 Brierley et al. (2002)

69 Learning academic writing and skills of argument

70 Study skills support for international students


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