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Hybrid Community Bioenergy Solutions for Sustainable Rural Living Michèle Clarke University of Nottingham.

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Presentation on theme: "Hybrid Community Bioenergy Solutions for Sustainable Rural Living Michèle Clarke University of Nottingham."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hybrid Community Bioenergy Solutions for Sustainable Rural Living Michèle Clarke University of Nottingham

2 An INTERACT 6 project funded by UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Dr Trevor Drage (Principle Investigator) - Prof Michele Clarke (Co-Investigator) –


4 Are Rural Communities Disadvantaged? Access to resources, amenities & services Limited transport = access difficult, time-consuming, expensive Disadvantage poor, elderly & sick Limited employment opportunities drives rural to urban migration Rural pay low (2010: 25% UK farming households live in poverty) Access to healthcare & affordable energy for: heating, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household, IT

5 Energy Poverty in Rural Communities India: 78 million households (57%) no access to electricity UK: 4.5 million households in energy poverty; 36% rural households have no gas supply

6 UK Electricity Projections - Secure, affordable and low-carbon Observations  Renewables, wind is intermittent and offshore wind in particular is expensive, encouraged by policy drivers, renewables obligation certificates.  Declining nuclear as old plants close  Coal and gas needed to meet peak demand but heating demand is high in winter  During last 3 cold winters, coal has supplied 50% of electricity  Over reliance on imported natural gas Electric vehicles could increase demand significantly

7 Supply and Demand in India  Reliance on fossil fuel particularly coal  Increasing nuclear capacity?  But can supply = demand? Load shedding  Energy poverty yet need to meet challenging carbon reduction targets


9 Energy generation clustered regionally Delivery to rural areas via National Grid Power outages common in rural areas, especially in winter


11 Climate Challenges: Cold Winters 2009-2011  8 Jan 2010

12 Community-scale Hybrid Renewable Energy Technological innovations in small-scale energy generation Biomass gasification & anaerobic digestion Appropriately tailored rural enterprise/ business models Systems adapted for local need Enabling communities: Tackle energy poverty Increase revenue generation New opportunities for rural industries & generate employment Decrease transport costs Improve socioeconomic status Reduce environmental impact & promote resource conservation

13 Resources and Demand Mapping Map & model: Resource availability Consumption Demand Supply Village level in Case study regions Different climates and development challenges Decision-making tool for optimum siting of hybrid technologies

14 Community Engagement Rural communities in Case study areas Identify individual, household & stakeholder needs & aspirations Identify challenges & opportunities for hybrid renewable energy Set up community user groups Demonstration sites in UK and India

15 Enterprise & Business Models Study existing business models in renewable energy Identify and share good practice Develop new robust, sustainable, fair and participatory finance mechanisms & tools WITH Case Study Communities in UK and India Enable testing, development and evaluation

16 Developments in Anaerobic Digestion Develop small-scale systems Better meet local needs Long lifetime Self-installation Combining novel heat integration systems - solar thermal hybrids & heat exchangers Stable thermal environments Remote monitoring and control

17 Advances in Biomass Gasification Fuelled by local waste & residue feedstocks Novel gasifier design: steam gasification Increased calorific value of flue gas Use of solid oxide fuel cells for gas mixtures Thermally stable combustion catalysts to optimise gas and char products Range of energy outputs: Heating/Cooling/Electricity/Light/Mechanical Power/Transport Fuel/Storage Options

18 Environmental Impact Analysis Establish environmental impacts and benefits of solid and liquid residues Organic fertiliser Chars for soil improver Compost What value-added contribution can these make to livelihood incomes?

19 Whole Systems Assessment Consider integration of: stakeholder priorities user needs and skills (education & training) technology advancement economic drivers To determine effective adoption, impact and up-scaling across rural UK and India and beyond

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