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B. Kerridge 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham Applications for UAVs, HAPs and CubeSats Presentation by B.Kerridge,

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Presentation on theme: "B. Kerridge 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham Applications for UAVs, HAPs and CubeSats Presentation by B.Kerridge,"— Presentation transcript:

1 B. Kerridge 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham Applications for UAVs, HAPs and CubeSats Presentation by B.Kerridge, RAL CEOI Challenge Workshop 10 th July 2012, University of Nottingham

2 B. Kerridge 1. Introduction Remit for CEOI Workshop: remote-sensing applications UAVs – Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  Long duration, high-altitude, large payload, unpressurised eg GlobalHawk: >30hr, ~20km altitude, >1,500lb payload  Long transects, remote or hazardous locations, troposphere & lower stratosphere as well as surface applications HAPs – High Altitude Platforms  Very long duration, quasi-geostationary, high-altitude, very large payload eg HALE-D: ~months, ~20km altitude → ~1,000km diameter field-of-regard  Monitoring of troposphere & lower stratosphere as well as surface  UAVs and HAPs offer high spatial resolution to complement satellite platforms  Satellite engineering practices relevant for these airborne platforms  Suitable for demonstration of future satellite sensors CubeSats – ~10cm x 10cm x 10cm  Small, lightweight, (inexpensive) sensors with modest requirements (attitude control, thermal control, power, data downlink)  Constellation offers dense geographical coverage 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

3 B. Kerridge 2. UAVs 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

4 B. Kerridge “Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) can revolutionize NOAA’s ability to monitor and understand the global environment. There is a key information gap today between instruments on Earth’s surface and on satellites — UAS can bridge that gap.” “UAS can also collect data from dangerous or remote areas, such as the poles, oceans, wildlands, volcanic islands, and wildfires.” “Specifically, UAS may:  Extend hurricane landfall lead times by observing storm environments.  Improve accuracy of storm forecasts,  Improve climate change understanding  Assess Arctic ice change and affects on ecosystems and coasts.  Improve flood and drought forecasts  Increase safety and success in fighting wildfires  Monitor coasts, oceans, environments important for fish, and marine sanctuaries” NOAA 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

5 B. Kerridge NASA airborne activities CARVE – Alaskan Arctic 2012 http://airbornescience.nasa.gov/program/current_activities SMAPVEX12 - 2012 Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Validation Experiment G-III UAVSAR ECO-3D to provide critical measurements on forest biomass structure and carbon 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham - UAVs feature prominently

6 B. Kerridge GreenHouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) instrument for Global Hawk Compact short-wave IR spectrometer to observe tropospheric column average CO 2, CH 4, H 2 O and CO and HDO/H 2 O over ocean Science objectives: test atmospheric transport models (e.g., tropics – subtropics transition zone validate satellite GHG column observations over oceans, to fill gap in TCCON complement in situ TTL tracer observations from Global Hawk  link upper troposphere with lower troposphere measurements GHOST will use technology similar to NASA’s OCO-II and supported by CEOI (IFU spectrometer) Courtesy, H.Boesch (U.Leicester)

7 B. Kerridge June 16, 2011 July 10, 2011 Aug 19, 2011Sep 8, 2011 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham Methane variability  Height-resolved data would improve on column-averages also for surface emissions 12km 0km Profiles from in situ sensor during ascents & descents in HIPPO flights

8 B. Kerridge Height-resolution from IR spectrometry ppmv 178 hPa422 hPaIASI column average Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (CEOI) - Compact IR spectrometer - Heterodyne: very high spectral & spatial resolution  Height-resolved CH 4 & see between clouds  Limb-sounder for high-res vertical profiling in combination with mm-wave (CEOI) Global CH 4 in the upper and mid troposphere from IASI FTIR Courtesy A.Waterfall, RAL Courtesy D.Weidmann, RAL 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

9 B. Kerridge Volcanic Plumes 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham Remote-sensors on UAV flying above civil air space could observe: - altitude, thickness & geographical extent of thin volcanic plumes - differentiate ash (from cirrus), sulphate aerosol & SO 2 Complementing:  operational satellite system (nadir-sensors lack height-res)  “AVOID” – ir limb-imager under development for airliners SO 2 from Mt.Etna in AVOID test flight courtesy F.Prata (NILU) CMS on TechDemoSat

10 B. Kerridge 1.Ice thickness (ice penetrating radar) 2.Grounding line position (repeat pass InSAR) UAV applications for Cryosphere

11 B. Kerridge  Ice thickness cannot be measured from existing satellite platforms  Major obstacle for ice sheet models as cannot resolve ice streams where instabilities arise  Main complication is available power, bandwidth, and frequency occupied by telecoms / millitary  Measurement technique is very simple.  Extent of current data limited to operations of airborne platforms  UAV platform a major opportunity Existing airborne ice thickness data in Antarctica. Ice sheet models run at 5 km resolution 1.Ice thickness (ice penetrating radar) Courtesy of A.Shepherd 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

12 B. Kerridge  Grounding line is junction between ice, bedrock, and ocean  GL migration rate is a key indicator of ice sheet stability  GL can be located using repeat pass InSAR due to tidal flexure of floating ice Grounding Line mapped by InSAR (Rignot, 1998) 2. Grounding line position (repeat pass InSAR)  No current or future satellite sensors can deliver  UAV repeat pass InSAR system could provide early warning of ice sheet collapse Courtesy of A.Shepherd 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

13 B. Kerridge 3. HAPs: Quasi-Geostationary Platform in Stratosphere Bridge the gap in scales between surface sensors & satellites 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

14 B. Kerridge 4 th March 2009, Royal Institution Atmospheric Composition Geostationary orbit ~36,000km Polar orbit ~900km View from 20km altitude Greater London & Thames estuary E

15 B. Kerridge Pollution Monitoring: Tropospheric NO 2 over Europe from OMI (Dec’04-Nov’05) – Information above and between surface networks – Relevance for annual emissions inventories Courtesy, P.Levelt (KNMI) 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

16 B. Kerridge Remote-sensing of NO 2 Imaging DOAS now used to map NO 2 CompAQS developed within CEOI Used from ground in CityScan system (eg over London during Olympics)  Could be mounted on UAV or HAP AirportCity Centre

17 B. Kerridge Airborne Imaging of NO 2 over Zurich by Swiss and Belgians 10am5:30pm NO 2 vertical column density Annual average model NO 2 concentration 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham Courtesy, R.Leigh (U.Leicester)

18 B. Kerridge HALE-D Lockheed Martin launched HALE-D on July 27, 2011 Demonstrating key technologies critical to development of unmanned airships. Altitude 60,000 feet 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

19 B. Kerridge 10 th July 2012, U.Nottingham Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats

20 B. Kerridge 4. CubeSats 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

21 B. Kerridge Radio Occultation Temperature & humidity profiling from radio occultation bending angle FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC joint Taiwan/US mission launched 14 th April 2006 6 identical micro satellites carrying advanced GPS radio occultation (RO) receiver, a Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP), and a Tri-Band Beacon (TBB). FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 6 satellites into low-inclination orbits in early 2016 6 satellites into high-inclination orbits in early 2018. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO payload, TriG (Tri-GNSS), will be capable of tracking 12,000 profiles per day once both constellations deployed. GNSS constellations: GPS and Galileo [R] and [G], GLONASS and BeiDou [G] MetOp-SG: improved performance cf GRAS on MetOp L1(1575.42MHz) and L5(1176.45MHz) frequency selection compatible with GPS and Galileo and will be compatible with future GLONASS and BeiDou in 2020 timeframe → 8-fold increase in acquisitions 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

22 B. Kerridge Surface Reflectometry  GPS reflections possible from ocean, ice and land surfaces  Received signal is“affected” by surface type and traversed atmosphere → Possibility to use reflected signal for sea surface topography, wind vector (or “roughness”), ice topography/thickness, soil moisture, eg TechDemoSat 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham

23 B. Kerridge 5. Summary UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats have great potential for remote-sensing Range of applications spans EO disciplines: –atmosphere, land surface, ocean, cryosphere Relevant sensors potentially include CEOI technology: –Compaqs (uv/vis), GHOST(swir), LHR (ir) & mm for atmospheric composition; canopy lidar UAV for long flights, at high-altitude, with access to remote or hazardous locations –eg forests, polar ice, storms/hurricanes, volcanic plumes –GlobalHawk prominent in NASA & NOAA campaigns (including lidar & SAR), targeted by NERC CAST and also potential alternative to Geophysika for UTLS limb-sounding HAP attractive future platform for monitoring on regional scale –eg pollution, surface emissions, vegetation stress, soil moisture & soil temperature; agriculture; hydrology (flooding); coastal zone CubeSat constellations offer dense coverage – eg GNSS RO profiling and sea-surface reflectometry 10 th July 2012 Applications for UAVs, HAPs & CubeSats B.Kerridge U.Nottingham


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