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Learning from Internationalisation Inclusive teaching across cultures

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1 Learning from Internationalisation Inclusive teaching across cultures

2 Culture shock & learning shock “a sudden immersion into a non-specific state of uncertainty where the individual is not sure what is expected of him or her, nor what to expect from other people. It can occur in any situation where an individual is forced to adjust to an unfamiliar social system where previous learning no longer applies” Hofstede, Pedersen & Hofstede (2002) Acculturation attitudes Berry et al, 1989 Is it considered to be of value to maintain cultural identity and characteristics? YesNo Is it considered to be of value to maintain relationships with other groups? YesIntegratedAssimilated NoSeparatedMarginalised

3 Hofstede’s “value dimensions” of culture Separating observation and interpretation Identitycollectivism / individualism Hierarchylarger / smaller “power distance” Gendermasculine / feminine approach to role distribution Truthuncertainty avoidance / uncertainty tolerance Virtuelong-term orientation / short-term orientation

4 High context / Low context cultures Hall (1977) High context Low context Focus on relationships Tasks separate from relationships Greater use of non- verbal communication and implicit meanings Highly structured and detailed messages Values group sense Values individual initiative and decision- making The purpose of communication ?

5 High context / Low context cultures A student from China (High Context, or HC) is going to study in the UK (Low Context, LC). Before leaving China he received a great deal of written information, typical of that generated by a low-context (UK) culture: (1) handbook for international students, (2) Travel Information, visa information and instructions from the Foreign Office, (3) The University Prospectus, (4) Information from the Students Union (5) The course handbook, (6) Information about accommodation (etc). When he arrives there is no one at the airport to meet him, which makes him feel very insecure. In the reverse, an appreciation of this insecurity becomes apparent if one considers a lecturer travelling to China (High Context) and being told "you will receive all necessary information when you arrive“. In HC cultures, formal communication is kept to a bare minimum and is used only when necessary, in LC cultures, very little is left 'between the lines‘.

6 Politeness and “face” Face: a public identity Brown & Levinson (1978) PositiveNegative Politeness strategies Express interest, approval, sympathy Seek agreement Use in-group identifiers Raise common ground Show knowledge of others’ concerns Assume / assert reciprocity De-personalise the participants Give deference Declare an indebtedness Minimise any impositions

7 The “practical theory” of those who teach Ethical / political justification Theory-based / Practice-based reasons for action Action From: Handal & Lauvas (1987) Promoting reflective teaching. SRHE & OUP Values Experiences, transferred knowledge etc. Practical theory Action in teaching Teaching practice

8 Learning to write "Academic language… is no one's mother tongue“ (Bourdieu, 1994) Repetition Patching Plagiphrasing Conventional academic writing

9 Perceptions of silence Silence as... Lack of interest, lack of ideas, unwillingness to communicate, shyness Silence as... Lack of confidence A different way to participate A reaction to others’ contributions Respect for authority / modesty Feeling inarticulate

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