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© NERC All rights reserved London’s Soil Chemistry: A continental scale anomaly Dee Flight, Andreas Scheib and the Geochemical Baselines Team British Geological.

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Presentation on theme: "© NERC All rights reserved London’s Soil Chemistry: A continental scale anomaly Dee Flight, Andreas Scheib and the Geochemical Baselines Team British Geological."— Presentation transcript:

1 © NERC All rights reserved London’s Soil Chemistry: A continental scale anomaly Dee Flight, Andreas Scheib and the Geochemical Baselines Team British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 3NX

2 © NERC All rights reserved A tale of two soil geochemical mapping projects GEMAS: European continental scale Agricultural soil quality Are anthropogenic impacts significant? London Earth: city scale: Urban soil quality; What impact does the soil quality have on the population?

3 © NERC All rights reserved GEMAS UK 138 sites 1 sample per 2500 km 2 London

4 © NERC All rights reserved London Earth 6300 sites 1572 km 2 4 samples per km 2 London Earth – Source of Sample site map:

5 © NERC All rights reserved London Earth: Land use at soil sampling sites

6 © NERC All rights reserved London Earth

7 © NERC All rights reserved Rigorous standardised methods based on established expertise and well tested, quality control; Undertaken contemporaneously; Multi-element/parameter topsoil geochemical mapping; Robust and reproducible outputs; Sample and data archive – lasting impact and future resource. GEMAS & London Earth

8 © NERC All rights reserved London Earth – Source of As map: London Earth – Source of Cd map:

9 © NERC All rights reserved Geogenic signatures for Al, Cs, Ga, K, La, Mg, Mn, Nb, Rb, Ti, V most dominant. Very low geogenic control of As, Ba, Cd, Mo, Pb, Se, Sn, Zn in London urban domain. Strongest geogenic signatures survived 2000 year history of urban development London Earth – statistical analysis and parent material mapping

10 © NERC All rights reserved London Earth – Source of Pb map:

11 © NERC All rights reserved (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.339)

12 © NERC All rights reserved 21 mg/kg GEMAS median

13 © NERC All rights reserved (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.346)

14 © NERC All rights reserved Pb isotope ratios in London’s soil

15 © NERC All rights reserved

16 London: soil Pb bioaccessibility

17 © NERC All rights reserved Lead in London Soil - a relationship with social deprivation?

18 © NERC All rights reserved

19 The London effect: Precious metals (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.139)(From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.159)

20 © NERC All rights reserved GEMAS median soil Au concentration:1 ppb X soil: 0-2 cm A soil: 5-20 cm Gold in London’s soils

21 © NERC All rights reserved Conclusions GEMAS and London Earth are high quality robust soil geochemical surveys of differing scale and purpose. Used together they provide unique understanding of the magnitude and spatial influence of London’s urban soil contamination. High resolution geochemical data show that a wide range of elements have been modified in London’s urban soil. GEMAS shows that for Pb, Au, (Sn, Hg, Ag) the impact of London’s urban soil contamination is significant at the continental scale.

22 © NERC All rights reserved Thank you for listening References

23 SLIDES 5, 6: Knights, K.V. and Scheib A.J., London Earth: details of field campaigns across the Greater London area, 2005 to British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK. Open Report OR/09/056. SLIDE 9: Ellison, R.A., Woods, M.A., Allen, D.J., Forster, A., Pharaoh, T.C. and King, C., Geology of London. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheets 256 (North London), 257 (Romford), 270 (South London) and 271 (Dartford) (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham. SLIDE 11, 13, 19: Reimann, C., Demetriades, A., Birke, M., Filzmoser P., O’Connor, P., Halamic, J., Ladenberger, A. & the GEMAS Project Team, Distribution of elements/parameters in agricultural and grazing land soil of Europe. Chapter 11 In: C. Reimann, M. Birke, A. Demetriades, P. Filzmoser & P. O’Connor (Editors), Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils – Part A : Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B 102), Schweizerbarth, SLIDE 12: Johnson, C.C., Ander, E.L., Cave, M.R. and Palumbo-Roe, B., Normal background concentrations (NBCs) of contaminants in English soils: Final project report. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, CR/12/035, 40 pp. SLIDE 16: Appleton, J.D., Cave M.R., Scheib, A. and Wragg, J., Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Accepted for publication in Environmental Pollution. SLIDE 17: Department for Communities and Local Government, Indices of Deprivation ONS Super Output Area Boundaries.


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