Presentation on theme: "Structure of Seminar Part 1 - Darren Smith Contextualisation of issues and trends - PBSA Part 2 - Jonathan Hale The Loughborough Case Study."— Presentation transcript:
Structure of Seminar Part 1 - Darren Smith Contextualisation of issues and trends - PBSA Part 2 - Jonathan Hale The Loughborough Case Study
Purpose-built student accommodation (PBSA): ‘saviour’ and/or ‘sinner’? Dr Darren P. Smith Reader in Human Geography University of Brighton, UK London 30 th June 2008
Context: the breakdown of ‘town and gown’relations? Dramatic rise of student populations (< mid-90s) No urban policy to accommodate rising numbers of students Students accommodated in unregulated / unplanned ways by private sector (HMO) Results = Studentification ‘ [Studentification is] the social and environmental changes caused by very large numbers of students living in particular areas of a town or city ’ ( Macmillan English Dictionary, 2003). Studentification: A Guide To Opportunities, Challenges and Practices Commissioned / published by: UniversitiesUK/SCOP Funded by: DfES & ODPM, LGA Launched: UUK conference January 2006 Parliamentary launch: 27 th June 2006
The response: addressing the ‘challenges' The dispersal of students away from existing over-concentrations & planning (Leeds, Loughborough, Nottingham) Halting the intensity of concentrations of students The proliferation of purpose-built student accommodation by the private sector (Unite, Opal) The refurbishment / upgrade of university- maintained / -managed student accommodation (UPP)
The scale of PBSA? 9% of students accommodated in PBSA (King Sturge, 2008) 120,000 students in PBSA (Mark Allan, Unite, 2008) –40,000 students reside in Unite PBSA UPP - Refurbishment of University accommodation Nottingham (2009/10) Students living in Nottingham (33,967) –PBSA (22,716) –HMO (11,251)
The ‘second-wave’ of studentification?
Purpose-built student accommodation The solution to: enhance the quality and management of student accommodation regulate the behaviour of some (anti-social) students solve refuse collection issues, etc (re)turn student areas to family housing control student leisure & recreation spaces (i.e. bars) reduce use of private vehicles and on-street parking circulate information leaflets and enhance communication with students about behaviour, etc Increase electoral voting, etc...
A more critical perspective of PBSA? Is PBSA addressing the challenges or displacing the challenges of studentification? Are the intentional outcomes being realised? What are the unintentional consequences of student accommodation?
A changing context of opportunities A changing private rented / HMO market Credit crunch (40% reduction in access to mortgages) –Pressures on student HMO for other social groups seeking to rent? (right-to-rent) Housing Act (licensing) Use Classes Order? Areas of Housing Mix (AoHm) HMO Action Zones (Nottingham) Student accommodation included in Local Housing Strategies/LDF Changing preferences of students
The unintentional effects of PBSA Studentification continues to unfold (students do not want PBSA?) Over-supply=destudentification (which social groups replace the students) Gentrification of student areas
The first-wave persists and is unfolding An international phenomena Town and Gown Association of Ontario (TGAO) Carlton Residents Group, Melbourne
Destudentification Definition (?) – ‘the decline of a student area due to the out-migration of student landlords and students’ - ‘We want the student’s back!’ (e.g. Coventry, Birmingham, Brighton) - ‘We don’t want the asylum seekers or the migrant workers’
Recognising the opportunities Engagement with the politics of studentification APPG for Balanced and Sustainable Communities Councillors Campaign for Balanced Communites NUS National HMO Lobby
PBSA - ‘Getting it right’ More effectively ‘protect’ and ‘nurture’ balanced communities = student populations The mission for providers of student accommodation: Woven into economic regeneration schemes Matches the preferences of students Provides affordable rents and high-quality student accommodation Integrated into established communities in sensitive ways Does not ‘ghettoise’ students in gated-communities Managed in effective ways (refuse, car parking, noise nuisance, volunteering, active citizens, green transport) Is this happening?
Student accommodation to address deeper challenges? Childless cities and towns (Peter Hall, 2007) Lack of family or affordable housing (housing crisis) Increasing segregation of society Proliferation of gated communities ‘Ghettoisation’ of social groups Breakdown of community cohesion Decreasing levels of social capital Deterioration of urban environment Homogenisation of built environment with ‘private sector footprint’