Presentation on theme: "Problem Based Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1Problem Based Learning Dr Reg DennickAssistant Director of Medical EducationThe University of Nottingham
2What do you already know/not know about PBL? Discuss with a partner.
3Learning Objectives Explain the educational rationale for PBL Describe the ‘seven-step’ PBL processParticipate/Observe in a partial PBL sessionCritically evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of PBL
5ANCIENT MEDICAL ‘THEORY’ LATIN&GREEKHIPPOCRATESARISTOTLEGALEN
6GRAMMAR, PUBLIC SCHOOLS & UNIVERSITIES Dominated byLatin & GreekAncient history and philosophyTheologyMEDICINEEntry needed Latin (Greek)All anatomical nomenclature in Latin/Greek
7Entry into medicine had a language and theory barrier going back to an ancient view of education. (Higher education was for an elite class using a ‘secret’ language?)Even with rise of ‘scientific medicine’ in 19th C the traditional medical curriculum had a Theory/Practice split and the requirement for Latin was not dropped till 1950s in UK
8Theory & PracticeIn education there has been a historical split between theory and practiceTheory has to be learned first before dealing with practice.PBL turns this split on its head.Problems deriving from practice are used as triggers to acquire theoretical knowledge
9PBL: definitionThe learning which results from the process of working towards the understanding of, or resolution of, a problem(Barrow & Tamblyn 1980)
10“The most powerful learning occurs when the student is dealing with uncertainty.” John DeweyCognitive dissonance(Festinger)ProblemsDis-equilibration(Piaget)Paradigm shifts(Kuhn)
11Problem Based Learning A strategy for learning where small groups of six to eight students work in a series of tutorials discussing problems provided by the Faculty related to their course.
12PBL is a type of Small Group Teaching activity ContentThe ScenarioThe ProblemThe ContextThe KnowledgeThe SkillsThe AttitudesProcessTalkingDialogueQuestioningHypothesisingCollaborationActivityCommunication skillsInterpersonal skills
13PBL students engage in a collaborative activity that: makes them think makes them ask questionsactivates prior knowledgetests their understandingelaborates new knowledgereinforces their understanding by speakingprovides motivation for learningmakes them practise a logical, analytical approach to unfamiliar situationsInvolveslearning in contextintegrated learningcollaboration
14PBL fulfils the conditions for effective adult learning Relevant contextAdults are self-motivatedAdults learn best in groupsAdults prefer ‘doing’ to being toldActive learning through posing own questions and finding own answers: therefore student centredIntegrated learning: learning in a variety of disciplines simultaneouslyDeep learning for understanding; metacognition; reflection; appropriate feedback; opportunities for practice
15Where does it come from? Celstin Freinet (1896-1966) McMaster Medical School (Hamilton, Ontario) 1969University of Maastricht (1974)Manchester (1995)Liverpool etc (1997)Nottingham (Derby) 2003
16How does it work? Scenario Small group Generate questions Research questionsAnswer questionsCommunicate answers
17The Maastricht ‘Seven Step’ PBL process Step 1: Clarify terms and conceptsStep 2: Define the problem(s)Step 3: Analyse the problem(s) - ”Brainstorm”Step 4: List of the analysis and possible solutionsStep 5: Formulate Learning ObjectivesStep 6: Collect additional information focussed on Learning ObjectivesStep 7: Synthesise and present new information
18A PBL scenarioRanjit Singh, 46, has just returned from the Indian sub-continent where he visited his brother and family for a period of one month. He lives with his wife, their four children and his parents in a three bedroom terraced house in the Peartree district of Derby. He works as a waiter in a local Indian restaurant. Recently he has started coughing a lot, has little energy, is losing weight and has developed a fever. He visited his GP after he coughed up some blood and developed chest pains. His GP suspects TB and has sent a sputum sample for analysis and Mr Singh for a chest X-ray.
19Learning Objectives for the PBL scenario Basic and clinical sciencesDescribe mechanisms and common causes of cough.Describe types of clinical investigations available for patients with cough. Interpretation of CXR.Outline the microbiology of mycobacterium tuberculosis.Describe the immune response to TB, its use in diagnosis and the tuberculin test.Describe clinical and pathological manifestations of TB.Outline the drug regimes for treating TB, their mode of action, side effects and the problem of drug resistance.
20Learning Objectives for the PBL scenario Community and populationDescribe the epidemiology of TB, the impact of socio-economic factors and its relation to HIV.Discuss the social and family issues associated with TB in the community.
21Learning Objectives for the PBL scenario Patient and DoctorDescribe how communication problems can be dealt with in ethnic minorities.Awareness of perception of TB in Asian communities and problems of stigmatisation.Dealing with issues of confidentiality versus compulsory notification: patient autonomy.Describe how to ensure compliance with complex and long-term drug regimes.Persuade family members to be immunised.
22Learning Objectives for the PBL scenario Personal and Professional DevelopmentDoctor as patient: awareness of personal immune status.
23PBL: students’ roles Work in a group of six to eight Meet for about an hour and a half two or three times a weekAnalyse, discuss and generate questions and learning tasks from the scenarioEngage in self-directed learningCommunicate results back to group
24PBL: role of the facilitator The facilitator must let the students be responsible for their learning.The facilitator must let the students do the work.The facilitator has the role of monitoring and evaluating the discussion. Guidance is given in the form of suggestions.The facilitator has background information concerning the case under discussion.The facilitator may intervene if the students are not working or if the activity is starting to go in the wrong direction.The students may ask the facilitator for advice which can be given according to his or her judgement.
25Small group Facilitator styles Kurt Lewin: Autocratic:facilitator basically controls all the objectives and activities of the group and keeps intervening to ensure they are carried out.Laissez-faire:allows the group to decide what its objectives are, what activities it is engaged in and has minimal input into the session.Democratic:collaborates with the group, helping them to agree on a set of objectives and activities and only intervening to keep the group dynamic orientated in a positive direction.
26Facilitator Styles John Heron: ‘Six dimensions of facilitation’ Facilitators need to be aware of basic issues which can influence the learning process:PlanningMeaningConfrontingFeelingStructuringValuing.These are independent processes that weave through each SGT session.
27Heron’s 18 facilitation styles Facilitators can move between all these styles during a small group teaching session.
28Heron: the most effective facilitator…… ……should value autonomy, co-operation and hierarchy in that order as this recognizes the personal autonomy of group members to self-actualize collaboratively, with the facilitator taking responsibility to achieve group goals.
30computer assisted learning Students engage in a wide variety of learning experiences of which PBL tutorials are of central importance.lecture/plenarytopic tutorialslibrary skillsPBL tutorialclinical workpracticalspersonal studydemonstrationscomputer assisted learning
34Problem Based Learning Scenario (Environmental Studies) Rolls Royce have revealed that they have a small nuclear reprocessing plant on their premises in a heavily populated area of Derby. It is similar to a plant in Japan where there was a recent accident.
35Step 1: Clarify terms and concepts Step 2: Define the problem(s) Step 3: Analyse the problem(s) - ”Brainstorm”Step 4: List of the analysis and possible solutionsStep 5: Formulate Learning ObjectivesStep 6: Collect additional information focussed on Learning ObjectivesStep 7: Synthesise and present new informationRolls Royce have revealed that they have a nuclear reprocessing plant on their premises in a heavily populated area of Derby. It is similar to a plant in Japan where there was a recent accident.
36Evidence for effectiveness We need to know what it is.What do we mean by effectiveness?What outcome measures should we use?
37The Evidence Can you define/describe it? What sort of an educational process is it?How does it relate to mainstream educational theories?What is the educational rationale?Is it Constructivist, Student Centred, Rogerian, Kolbian, Dewian, Post-modern, Confucian?Is there a common underlying process?Is it really Question Based Learning? Problem solving? Situation based Learning?How many variants of PBL are there? How are they related?
38Evidence How effective is it? What do we mean by effective in this context?Can we measure its effectiveness?How do we measure its effectiveness?Quantitative or Qualitative or both?Can you control all the variables?
39Evidence What outcomes can be used to ‘measure’ effectiveness? Exam results?Personal satisfaction? Academic achievement? Clinical competence? Patient satisfaction?Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes?Communication and interpersonal skills?Life-long learning skills?Participation in CPD?Must there be a control or comparative group?Randomization?Is the RCT the ‘gold standard’ for educational research?Is process more important than outcomes?
40Summary of evidence Academic achievement: Clinical achievement: little significant differenceClinical achievement:PBL students have superior clinical skills and communication skillsApproaches to learning:PBL students more likely to use deep rather than surface and more likely to engage in self-directed learning
41Summary of Evidence Graduates of PBL Teacher & Student satisfaction More likely to engage in CPDTeacher & Student satisfactionGreater for PBLCostsMore expensive with >100 students
42Problems with PBL Perceptions Training Dual tracking Coverage & ‘holes’ in knowledgeExpert v. non-expert tutorsResource-intensiveSignificant start-up and maintenance costsDemanding of staff timeCan be stressful for students and staffNeed strong commitment of faculty
43My viewsIt needs to be well defined, organized and integrated into the curriculum.Students need to understand what it is; they need to learn about learning.For most students it’s a great way to learn and they love its collaborative and interactive nature.Students talk to each other for three hours a week about the subject.For students and facilitators its very stimulating and enjoyable: it’s fun!Graduate PBL students achieve the same knowledge scores in clinical exams and communicate well in the clinical environment
44A student view“My overall experience of PBL has been a positive one and I would argue that PBL has a lot to offer medical students. PBL not only provided me with a knowledge of the fundamental areas of medicine but also made me aware of my responsibility for my own learning, a crucial element in itself….Working in a group allowed me to develop my interpersonal skills as well as providing a stimulating work environment, which is not always achieved if spent in lectures all day.”
45ReferencesFoundations of Problem-based Learning (2004). Maggi Savin-Baden & Claire Howell Major. Open University Press.The challenge of Problem Based Learning (1997). Eds: David Boud and Grahame Feletti. Kogan Page.A pilot systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning. (2003) Mark Newman. LTSN-01 report.(http://www.medev.ac.uk/docs/pbl_report.pdf)
47Learning Objectives Explain the educational rationale for PBL Describe the ‘seven-step’ PBL processParticipate/Observe in a partial PBL sessionCritically evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of PBL