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A. Definitions 1. Chemistry 2. Matter CHEMISTRY I. Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "A. Definitions 1. Chemistry 2. Matter CHEMISTRY I. Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 A. Definitions 1. Chemistry 2. Matter CHEMISTRY I. Introduction

2 Anything that occupies space and has mass.

3 3. Energy

4 a. Potential

5 b. Kinetic

6 c. Forms Chemical Electrical Mechanical Radiant

7 4. Elements

8

9

10 A. Particles II. Atomic Chemistry

11 Figure 2.1

12 B. Structure

13 Figure 2.2

14 C. Atomic & Mass Number

15

16

17 D. Isotopes & Radioisotopes

18 Figure 2.3

19 Isotope = atom with more neutrons Radioisotopes neutrons measurably decay giving off radiation (alpha and beta particles, plus gamma rays) Decay Rate = half life

20

21 E. Electronegativity & Valence

22 Electronegativity => degree of attraction for electrons Valence => number of electrons in the outermost shell Figure 2.5

23 A. Definition 1. Definition 2. Types III. Molecular Chemistry B. Chemical Bonds a. Electron Sharing

24 i. Ionic bonds  giving and taking of electrons Figure 2.6a Figure 2.6b

25 ii. Polar Covalent bonds  unequal sharing Figure 2.6

26 iii. Non-polar covalent bonds  equal sharing

27 iii. Non-polar covalent bonds  equal sharing

28 b. Hydrogen Sharing

29 Hydrogen bonds  sharing a hydrogen atom between molecules Figure 2.10a

30 A. Definition 1. Synthesis, Dehydration, or Anabolic Decomposition, Decomposition, Hydrolytic, Hydrolytic, or or Catabolic IV. Chemical Reactions B. Types 3. Exchange

31 A (OH) + B (H)  AB + H2OH2O CD + H 2 O  C (OH) + D (H) AB + CD  AC + BD

32

33 Figure 2.11

34

35 C. Factors Affecting Rates

36 A. Water 1. Properties V. Inorganic Molecules

37 States of Water

38 Polar Figure 2.7

39 H-Bonding Potential Figure 2.8

40 Density

41 Cohesive Forces

42 2. Uses

43 Solvent Figure 2.12

44 Temperature Stabilizer or Heat of Vaporization

45 B. Salt (Electrolytes) 1. Properties

46

47 2. Uses

48 C. Acids, Bases, pH, & Buffers 1. Definitions & Uses

49 An acid  increases the hydrogen ion concentration H 2 CO 3  HCO H + (Carbonic) H 2 SO 4  H + + H + + SO 4 2- (Sulfuric) HCl  H + + Cl - (Hydrochloric)

50 A base  decreases the hydrogen ion concentration HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O (Sodium Hydroxide)

51 pH Scale  measures the hydrogen ion concentration Figure 2.13

52 A buffer  regulates the pH of a solution HCO H +  H 2 CO 3 HPO H +  H 2 PO 4 - NH 3 + H +  NH 4 +

53 A. Why Carbon? VI. Organic Molecules

54

55

56 B. Carbohydrate 1. Atoms 2. Arrangement of Atoms

57 Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen (CH 2 O) Figure 2.12

58 Isomers

59 3. Types

60 a. Monosaccharide = glucose, fructose, galactose, or ribose

61 b. Disaccharide = two simple sugars together Glucose + Fructose  Sucrose + H2OH2O Glucose + Galactose  Lactose + H2OH2O

62 c. Polysaccharides = many simple sugars together Chitin found in insect exoskeletons

63 4. Biological Uses

64 C. Lipids 1. Atoms 2. Arrangement of Atoms 3. Types

65 a. Neutral Fats = glycerol with fatty acid chains (monoglyceride, diglyceride, or triglyceride) Saturated vs. Unsaturated

66 b. Phospholipids = glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar phosphate group.

67 c. Steroids = carbon ringed with attachments giving different properties Cholesterol Estrogen Testosterone

68 4. Biological Uses

69 D. Protein 1. Atoms 2. Arrangement of Atoms

70 Figure 2.15a

71

72

73 3. Types

74 Depends on the amino acid sequence conformation vs. denaturation

75 4. Biological Uses

76 Proteins vary in function from being Contractile, Defensive, Enzymatic, Signal, Storage, Structural, to Transporter. Everything about a protein’s function is reliant on its conformation, that is dictated by its amino acid sequence.

77 E. Nucleic Acids 1. Atoms 2. Arrangement of Atoms

78 Nucleotides are one of five types adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine in DNA, and substitute uracil for thymine in RNA. Figure 2.17

79 3. Types

80 DNA vs. RNA Strands double single Bases A,T,G, & C A, U, G, & C Sugars deoxyribose ribose Size huge portion of DNA Location nucleus nucleus & cytoplasm Types one three (mRNA, tRNA, & rRNA)

81 4. Biological Uses

82 F. Adenosine Triphosphate 1. Atoms 2. Arrangement of Atoms 3. Types

83 ATP, TTP, GTP, CTP, & UTP Figure 2.18

84 4. Biological Uses

85 A. Structure VI. Enzymes

86 B. Function

87 1. How enzymes work Figure 2.20

88 1. & Why? Figure 2.21

89 C. Regulation

90 1. Competition

91 2. Feedback Inhibition

92 3. Allosteric Control

93 Knowledge moves you towards your goal.


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