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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 26 The Urinary System

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Identify the components and functions of the urinary system Describe the location and structural features of the kidneys Describe the structure of a nephron, and outline the processes involved in the formation of urine List and describe the factors that influence filtration pressure and the rate of filtrate formation

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 26-1 An Overview of the Urinary System

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Excretion The removal of organic waste products from body fluids Elimination The discharge of waste products into the environment Homeostatic regulation of blood plasma Regulating blood volume and pressure Regulating plasma ion concentrations Stabilizing blood pH Conserving nutrients Functions of the urinary system

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The kidneys Produce urine The ureters The urinary bladder Stores urine The urethra Urinary system includes:

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.1 Figure 26.1 An introduction to the Urinary System

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 26-2 The Kidneys

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Left kidney extends slightly more superiorly than right Both kidneys and adrenal glands are retroperitoneal Hilus Entry for renal artery and renal nerves Exit for renal veins and ureter The kidneys

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.2 The Position of the Kidneys Figure 26.2a, b

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.3 Figure 26.3 The Urinary System in Gross Dissection

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial outer cortex and inner medulla The medulla consists of 6-18 renal pyramids The cortex is composed of roughly 1.25 million nephrons Major and minor calyces along with the pelvis drain urine to the ureters Sectional anatomy of the kidneys

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.4a, b Figure 26.4 The Structure of the Kidney

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Renal arteries branch repeated Renal artery Segmental artery Interlobar artery Arcuate artery Interlobular artery Afferent arterioles Renal venules follow similar opposing pattern ending with renal veins Blood supply and innervation of the kidneys

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.5 The Blood Supply to the Kidneys Figure 26.5a, b

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.5 The Blood Supply to the Kidneys Figure 26.5c, d

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The nephron consists of a renal corpuscle and renal tubule The renal corpuscle is composed of Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus The renal tubule consists of Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nephron empties tubular fluid into collecting system Collecting ducts and papillary ducts form the collecting system Filtrate is produced at the renal corpuscle

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.6 A Representative Nephron Figure 26.6

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Production of filtrate Reabsorption of organic nutrients Reabsorption of water and ions Secretion of waste products into tubular fluid Nephron functions include:

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cortical nephrons ~85% of all nephrons Located in the cortex Juxtamedullary nephrons Closer to renal medulla Loops of Henle extend deep into renal pyramids Responsible for greatest amount of water reabsorbed Two types of nephron

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.7a Figure 26.7 Cortical and Juxtamedullary Nephrons

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.7b, c Figure 26.7 Cortical and Juxtamedullary Nephrons

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood travels from efferent arteriole to peritubular capillaries Vasa recta Renal tubule begins at renal corpuscle Includes glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule Blood leaves the nephron via the efferent arteriole Renal tubule and blood flow

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Podocytes cover lamina densa of capillaries Project into the capsular space Pedicels of podocytes separated by filtration slits Glomerulus anatomy

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.8 The Renal Corpuscle Figure 26.8a, b

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.8 The Renal Corpuscle Figure 26.8c, d

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Actively reabsorbs nutrients, plasma proteins and ions from filtrate Released into peritubular fluid Loop of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Each limb has a thick and thin section Functional anatomy of the nephron Animation: Urinary System Anatomy PLAY

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Actively secretes ions, toxins, drugs Reabsorbs sodium ions from tubular fluid Functional anatomy of the nephron Animation: Urinary System Dissection and Flythrough PLAY

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 26-3 Principles of Renal Physiology

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regulating blood volume and composition Excreting waste products Urea Creatinine Uric acid Urine production maintains homeostasis

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Filtration Blood pressure Water and solutes across glomerular capillaries Reabsorption The removal of water and solutes from the filtrate Secretion Transport of solutes from the peritubular fluid into the tubular fluid Basic processes of urine formation

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Filtration in the kidneys modified by carrier mediated transport Facilitated diffusion Active transport Cotransport Countertransport Carrier proteins have a transport maximum (T m ) Determines renal threshold Carrier Mediated Transport

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Accomplished via diffusion, osmosis, and carrier- mediated transport T m determines renal threshold for reabsorption of substances in tubular fluid Reabsorption and secretion

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most regions of the nephron perform a combination of functions General functions can be identified Filtration in the renal corpuscle Nutrient reabsorption along the PCT Active secretion at PCT and DCT Loops of Henle regulate final volume and solute concentration Renal function

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.9 An Overview of Urine Formation Figure 26.9

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 26-4 Renal Physiology: Filtration and the Glomerulus

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Occurs as fluids move across the glomerulus In response to glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) and blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries Capsular hydrostatic pressure (CsHP) opposes GHP Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) opposes GHP Net hydrostatic pressure (NHP) = GHP – CsHP Filtration (FP) = NHP – BCOP Filtration pressures - Glomerular filtration

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Glomerular Filtration Figure 26.10

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Glomerular Filtration Figure 26.10a, b

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Amount of filtrate produced in the kidneys each minute Factors that alter filtration pressure change GFR Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 26-5 Renal Physiology: Reabsorption and Secretion

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Glomerular filtration produces fluid similar to plasma without proteins The PCT reabsorbs 60-70% of the filtrate produced Reabsorption of most organic nutrients Active and passive reabsorption of sodium and other ions Reabsorption of water Secretion also occurs in the PCT Reabsorption and secretion at the PCT Animation: Early Filtrate Processing PLAY Animation: Glomerular filtration PLAY

43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Transport Activities at the PCT Animation: Proximal Convoluted Tubule PLAY Figure 26.12

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The loop of Henle and countercurrent multiplication Countercurrent multiplication Between ascending and descending limbs of loop Creates osmotic gradient in medulla Facilitates reabsorption of water and solutes before the DCT Permits passive reabsorption of water from tubular fluid

45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.13a Figure Countercurrent Multiplication and Concentration of Urine

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.13b Figure Countercurrent Multiplication and Concentration of Urine

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.13c Figure Countercurrent Multiplication and Concentration of Urine


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