Presentation on theme: "CULTIVATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty"— Presentation transcript:
1 CULTIVATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty BACTERIADoç.Dr.Hrisi BAHARIstanbul UniversityCerrahpasa Medical Faculty
2 WHAT IS CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA ► The survival of microorganisms in the laboratory, as well as in nature, depends on their ability to grow under certain chemical and physical conditions► Cultivation of bacteria is to obtain a bacterial growth under certain chemical and physical conditions .
3 BACTERIAL GROWTH ◌ The cell doubles in size ◌ Replicate the chromosome ► An increase in population number of a bacteria by reproduction► Not an increase in cell size► Most bacteria reproduce by Binary Fission◌ The cell doubles in size◌ Replicate the chromosome◌ Forms a septum in the center◌ Synthesizes a cell wall at the septum◌ Daughter cells separate
4 PURPOSE OF CULTURING BACTERIA ◌ Isolation of bacteria◌ Understand properties of bacteria◌ To create antigen for laboratory use◌ To test for antibiotics sensitivity◌ Estimate viable counts◌ Maintain stock cultures◌ Typing with bacteriophages and bacteriocins susceptibility
5 Culture media are employed in the A CULTURE MEDIAA culture media is a combination of nutrients used to growth organisms outside of their natural environment.Culture media are employed in the► Isolation and maintenance of pure cultures of bacteria► Identification of bacteria according to their biochemical and physiological properties.
6 Major Contribution to Culture Media is provided by
8 Why we need culture media ? ► Every organism must find in its environment all of the substances required for energy generation and cellular biosynthesis.► The chemicals and elements of this environment that are utilized for bacterial growth are referred to as nutrients or nutritional requirements.► In the laboratory, bacteria are grown in culture media which are designed to provide all the essential nutrients in solution for bacterial growth.
9 Definitions● Pure Culture : a single “strain” of microbegrown in media.● Strain: A microbial culture which is the descendent of a single cell originally isolated from the environment.● Aseptic technique:Method of hendling material without contamination from the environment.
10 Classification of Culture Media According their production► Synthetic media► Semi- Synthetic media► Non - Synthetic mediaAccording their usage◌ MINIMAL MEDIUM◌ ALL-PURPOSE MEDIUM◌ SELECTIVE MEDIUM◌ DIFFERENTIAL MEDIUMBased on their usage
11 A MINIMAL MEDIUM● A minimal medium is one which supplies only the minimal nutritional requirements of a particular organism .● These media vary in composition according to the minimal nutritional requirements of the particular species under study
12 AN ALL- PURPOSE MEDIUM● This medium is rich in a wide variety of nutrients (including many growth factors) and will, therefore, support the growth of a wide range of bacteria◌ Chocolate Agar◌ Nutrient Agar◌ Brain Heart Infusion Agar◌ Blood Agar
17 Lowenstein Jensen Medium - cultivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
18 A DIFFERENTIAL MEDIUM● This medium is one which allows two or more different types of organisms to grow.It allows identification of bacteria based on specific properties.● It contains dyes and/or other components upon which different organisms act in various ways to produce a variety of end products or effects, often detected by variations in color.◌ Glucose Fermentation Broth◌ Three sugar iron agar
20 Anaerobic Culture Methods Anaerobic jar Figure 6.5
21 Basic requirements of culture media ► Nutrients Energy source Carbon source Nitrogen source► Mineral salts – Sulphate, phosphates, chlorides & carbonates of K, Mg & Ca.► A suitable pH – 7.2 – 7.4► Accessory growth factors Tryptophan for Salmonella typhi X & V factors for H. influenzae
22 Major elements, their sources and functions in bacterial cells.
23 1. solid medium ( 1.5～2.5% of agar) agar plate According to physical properties, media can be classified as three types:1. solid medium ( 1.5～2.5% of agar) agar plate2. semi-solid medium (0.3～0.5% of agar)3. liquid medium2113
24 Agar – Agar ► Solid medium is made by adding agar ► Agar is obtained from Sea weeds of New Zealand► Agar contain long chain of polysaccharides, Inorganic salts and protein like substances► Melts at 980c and solidify at 420c
25 Mueller Hinton Agar for Antibiotic Testing is a solid medium
26 Liquid Medium ► Difficult to identify all types of organisms ► Suitable for isolation of bacteria from Blood culturing or bacteria existing in small number.
27 IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ► The identification process started by isolating pure colony by Quadrant streaking method on an appropriate culture media for the type of bacteria being targeted to be isolated.This means:► To get suitable culture media that will allow the growth of certain species and inhibit others or► To follow the standard and proper culturing method that enables us to isolate a pure colony.27
34 Bacterial Identification procedures II- Macroscopic procedures1- Gram reaction confirmation testOn a clean slide one or two colonies are mixed with two or three drops of 4% sodium hydroxide solution:Gram negative bacteria will produce a mucoid line when strengthen while gram positive will not produce it.34
36 Identification of bacteria 2- Culture appearance :a- The appearance of bacterial coloniesb- The effect of colony on culture media are often characteristic of the bacterial species.36
37 Identification of bacteria a- The appearance of the colonies is described using conventional terms and may include:Shape of the colonySize of the colonyElevation of the colonySurface of the colonyColor of the colonyOpacity of the colonyConsistency of the colony
39 Identification of bacteria Identification need also to differentiate species following their aspects like: 1-Requirement of oxygen 2-The need of co2 3-Capacity to form pigments 4-Power of hemolysis
40 Identification of bacteria b- The colony effects on culture media:1- Pigment production :Pigment producing organisms will have colored colonies .The development of the color will depend on the type of the medium.2-Beta hemolyses40