Presentation on theme: "Pharmacy Units Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout book The most common ones (Must know) C=Celsius F =Fahrenheit G or."— Presentation transcript:
Pharmacy Units Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout book The most common ones (Must know) C=Celsius F =Fahrenheit G or gr =Gram Gr. = grain L= liter Ml= Milliliter Mg=Milligram Kg=Kilogram TBSP= tablespoon TSP= Teaspoon Gtt= drop
Measurement Systems Metric System- began in France in 1795. Denotes basic units of measurement in 6 main areas: Mass - Gram Length- meter Time- second Volume- liter Electricity- Ampere (named after the french mathematician, Andre Marie Ampere) is a unit of electric current. Temperature – Kelvins Conversions are made based on factors of ten: 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1000 milligrams= 1 gram
Metric System is the preferred system in science and medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world Nano =0.000000001 Micro = 0.000001 Milli =0.001 Centi=0.01 Deci = 0.1 Kilo=1,000
US Customary Units and British Imperial Systems Development over centuries in the British Isles and later in the US colonies Formally standardized in 1824 Still use in the US and Great Britain Today; however, almost all scientific applications use the metric system or the SI system (Système international d'unités ) Avoirdupois system is a subsystem of weights in the US and British Systems based on the pound. 1 pound = 16 ounces = 480 grams (actually slightly less)
The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg 2.2 pound = 1 kilograms 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml 1 ounce = 28.35 g and 1 fl. Oz= 30 ml 1 pint= 16 ounces and 16 fl.oz= 480 ml 2 pints= 32 ounces and 32 fl.oz = 1 quart = 960 ml=0.96 liters 8 pints= 128 ounces and 128 fl.oz=4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters 20 drops = 1 ml
Apothecary System Apothecary system is a system of weights and measure used in Europe during the 18 th century by physicians and pharmacist (apothecary) Is a subset of the British Imperial systems The following are important to remember in pharmacy The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml The following is the symbols for the ounce, scruple, and the pound The apothecary pounds is 12 ounces. The apothecary ounce is the troy ounce which is the 31.1 grams. Precious metals and gemstones are weighted in troy ounces. Gold=Au, Silver= Ag, Platinum = Pt
Conversions between units To make a unit conversion note: units 1 X (unit 2/unit 1) = unit 2 Or use the formula in the book: Unit you have X (the unit you need/unit you have)= the unit you need
Electrolytes and their units In medicine electrolytes are reported in the following units: mg/dl and mEq/l Electrolytes that are reported in mEq/l are sodium, potassium. Normal sodium in humans is 135 mEq/l to 145 mEq/ml Low plasma sodium is called hyponatremia and high is hypernatremia. Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. NaCL is the symbol for sodium chloride Sodium is important in the human body. The level of sodium determines the amount of volume that the body holds and hence its blood pressure. Sodium is a major determinate of electrically conductivity of nerves and muscles. A typical order you may see in the hospital for sodium chloride is : infuse NS 500 ml once over 30 minutes A typical prescription you may see for sodium chloride is: NaCl tablet 1 gram TID.
Normal plasma potassium is 4 mEq/l to 5 mEq/l Low plasma potassium is hypokalemia and high is hyperkalemia The chemical symbol for potassium is K High potassium levels (greater than 9 mEq/l) is very dangerous and can be fatal (death is by cardiac asystole) Potassium is important in conducting electrical impulses in nerves and muscles, like sodium. Potassium is also responsible for setting the resting cell membrane potential and hence is responsible for the responsiveness of nerve or muscle to “fire” an impulse. A prescription for KCL you may see in the retail pharmacy is: Kdur 10® 1 tablet PO BID. Kdur® is the brand name for potassium chloride. Its is a wax cover tablet that is designed to mask the intense metallic taste of KCL. You may see Kdur ® listed as 10 meq or (750 mg). KDur ® is normally given to patients that are taking potassium depleting diuretics like furosemide.
Calcium The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca Calcium and Magnesium are divalent cations, meaning they have a charge of +2. Sometimes you will see them write as Ca +2 and Mg +2 Normal plasma calcium is 8 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl Calcium is important in the body for blood pressure, cardiac function and blood clotting. Calcium is the main determinate for muscular contractility. Calcium is important for bone and teeth integrity. A Prescription you may see for calcium in the community setting is Oscal® 1 tablet TID. Oscal is calcium carbonate 1,250 mg (500 mg of elemental calcium). Oscal D is calcium carbonate with vitamin D 1,250 mg (500 mg elemental calcium) with 200 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol)
Treatment for Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte abnormality. (usually potassium level of 9 meq/l or higher is fatal) Calcium is sometimes used to reverse effects of high blood potassium on the heart. An order you may see is 1 gram calcium gluconate IVP X 2 0.3 gram calcium chloride IVP X 2 You may also see the following as well: Insulin R 10 units IVP 25 ml of D50W IVP Albuterol 0.083% : 3 ml nebulized every 15 minutes X 3 Kayexelate 60 ml orally X2
More less Commonly used abbreviations AMA= against medical advice AV= arteriovenous BE= Barium enema BUN= Blood urea nitrogen CC= chief complaint Cl liq= clear liquids DAT= diet as tolerated Dim= one- half or SS EENT= eye, ear, nose and throat ERT- estrogen replacement therapy FE= iron GTT= glucose tolerance test HRT= Hormone replacement therapy
Hx= history IM= intramuscular injection I&O= intake and output KCL= potassium chloride mEq= milliequivalent MOM= milk of magnesia NPO= nothing by mouth PRN = as needed PO= by mouth Qs= sufficient quantity
SSE= soap suds enema Sum= take TPN= total parenteral nutrition Ung= ointment