Presentation on theme: "Pharmacy Units Measurements and Abbreviations"— Presentation transcript:
1Pharmacy Units Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout bookThe most common ones (Must know)C=CelsiusF =FahrenheitG or gr =GramGr. = grainL= literMl= MilliliterMg=MilligramKg=KilogramTBSP= tablespoonTSP= TeaspoonGtt= drop
2Measurement Systems Metric System- began in France in 1795. Denotes basic units of measurement in 6 main areas:Mass - GramLength- meterTime- secondVolume- literElectricity- Ampere (named after the french mathematician , Andre Marie Ampere) is a unit of electric current.Temperature – KelvinsConversions are made based on factors of ten:1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1000 milligrams= 1 gram
3Metric System is the preferred system in science and medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the worldNano =Micro =Milli =0.001Centi=0.01Deci = 0.1Kilo=1,000
4US Customary Units and British Imperial Systems Development over centuries in the British Isles and later in the US coloniesFormally standardized in 1824Still use in the US and Great Britain Today; however, almost all scientific applications use the metric system or the SI system (Système international d'unités )Avoirdupois system is a subsystem of weights in the US and British Systems based on the pound.1 pound = 16 ounces = 480 grams (actually slightly less)
5The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg2.2 pound = 1 kilograms1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml1 ounce = g and 1 fl. Oz= 30 ml1 pint= 16 ounces and 16 fl.oz= 480 ml2 pints= 32 ounces and 32 fl.oz = 1 quart = 960 ml=0.96 liters8 pints= 128 ounces and 128 fl.oz=4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters20 drops = 1 ml
6Apothecary SystemApothecary system is a system of weights and measure used in Europe during the 18th century by physicians and pharmacist (apothecary)Is a subset of the British Imperial systemsThe following are important to remember in pharmacyThe follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 mlThe following is the symbols for the ounce, scruple, and the poundThe apothecary pounds is 12 ounces. The apothecary ounce is the troy ounce which is the 31.1 grams. Precious metals and gemstones are weighted in troy ounces. Gold=Au, Silver= Ag, Platinum = Pt
7Conversions between units To make a unit conversion note:units 1 X (unit 2/unit 1) = unit 2Or use the formula in the book:Unit you have X (the unit you need/unit you have)= the unit you need
8Electrolytes and their units In medicine electrolytes are reported in the following units: mg/dl and mEq/lElectrolytes that are reported in mEq/l are sodium, potassium.Normal sodium in humans is 135 mEq/l to 145 mEq/mlLow plasma sodium is called hyponatremia and high is hypernatremia.Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. NaCL is the symbol for sodium chlorideSodium is important in the human body. The level of sodium determines the amount of volume that the body holds and hence its blood pressure.Sodium is a major determinate of electrically conductivity of nerves and muscles.A typical order you may see in the hospital for sodium chloride is : infuse NS 500 ml once over 30 minutesA typical prescription you may see for sodium chloride is: NaCl tablet 1 gram TID.
9Normal plasma potassium is 4 mEq/l to 5 mEq/l Low plasma potassium is hypokalemia and high is hyperkalemiaThe chemical symbol for potassium is KHigh potassium levels (greater than 9 mEq/l) is very dangerous and can be fatal (death is by cardiac asystole)Potassium is important in conducting electrical impulses in nerves and muscles, like sodium.Potassium is also responsible for setting the resting cell membrane potential and hence is responsible for the responsiveness of nerve or muscle to “fire” an impulse.A prescription for KCL you may see in the retail pharmacy is: Kdur 10® 1 tablet PO BID. Kdur® is the brand name for potassium chloride . Its is a wax cover tablet that is designed to mask the intense metallic taste of KCL. You may see Kdur ® listed as 10 meq or (750 mg).KDur ® is normally given to patients that are taking potassium depleting diuretics like furosemide.
10Calcium The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca Calcium and Magnesium are divalent cations, meaning they have a charge of +2.Sometimes you will see them write as Ca +2 and Mg +2Normal plasma calcium is 8 mg/dl to 10 mg/dlCalcium is important in the body for blood pressure, cardiac function and blood clotting.Calcium is the main determinate for muscular contractility.Calcium is important for bone and teeth integrity.A Prescription you may see for calcium in the community setting is Oscal® 1 tablet TID. Oscal is calcium carbonate 1,250 mg (500 mg of elemental calcium). Oscal D is calcium carbonate with vitamin D 1,250 mg (500 mg elemental calcium) with 200 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol)
11Treatment for Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte abnormality. (usually potassium level of 9 meq/l or higher is fatal)Calcium is sometimes used to reverse effects of high blood potassium on the heart. An order you may see is1 gram calcium gluconate IVP X 20.3 gram calcium chloride IVP X 2You may also see the following as well:Insulin R 10 units IVP25 ml of D50W IVPAlbuterol 0.083% : 3 ml nebulized every 15 minutes X 3Kayexelate 60 ml orally X2
12More less Commonly used abbreviations AMA= against medical adviceAV= arteriovenousBE= Barium enemaBUN= Blood urea nitrogenCC= chief complaintCl liq= clear liquidsDAT= diet as toleratedDim= one- half or SSEENT= eye, ear, nose and throatERT- estrogen replacement therapyFE= ironGTT= glucose tolerance testHRT= Hormone replacement therapy
13Hx= historyIM= intramuscular injectionI&O= intake and outputKCL= potassium chloridemEq= milliequivalentMOM= milk of magnesiaNPO= nothing by mouthPRN = as neededPO= by mouthQs= sufficient quantity
14SSE= soap suds enemaSum= takeTPN= total parenteral nutritionUng= ointment