Presentation on theme: "By jamshid najafian Internist cardiologist. Lifestyle modification is indicated for all patients with hypertension, regardless of drug therapy. It."— Presentation transcript:
By jamshid najafian Internist cardiologist
Lifestyle modification is indicated for all patients with hypertension, regardless of drug therapy. It may reduce, or even abolish, the need for antihypertensive drugs.
Lifestyle modifications may be the only treatment necessary for preventing or even treating milder forms of hypertension in the elderly Smoking cessation Reduction in excess body weight Reduction mental stress Modification of sodium and alcohol intake Increased physical activity LSM may also reduce antihypertensive drug doses needed for BP control. .
Nutrition 35% Exercise 26% patients 75 years of age are least likely to receive such counseling
Smoking cessation may not directly reduce BP, but markedly reduces overall cardiovascular risk. The risk of myocardial infarction is 2–6 times higher and the risk of stroke is 3 times higher in people who smoke than in non-smokers
Smokers 65 years of age benefit greatly from abstinence Older smokers who quit reduce their risk of Death from CAD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Lung cancer Osteoporosis. Age does not appear to diminish the desire to quit or the benefits of quitting. However, smokers 65 years of age are less likely to be prescribed smoking cessation medications.
Pharmacotherapy (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, varenicline) is effective. The risk of adverse effects is small and is generally outweighed by the significant risk of continuing to smoke.
Consider pharmacotherapy for those who smoke more than 10 cigarettes per day and have no contraindications.
Weight reduction lowers BP in overweight individuals: loss of 3% to 9% of body weight reduces systolic and DBP about 3 mm Hg each In the TONE study, a diet that reduced weight by a 3.5 kg lowered BP by 4.0/1.1 mm Hg among 60- to 80-year-old patients with hypertension. Every 1% reduction in body weight lowers systolic BP by an average of 1 mmHg
Dietary sodium restriction is perhaps the best-studied lifestyle intervention for BP reduction. Mean BP reduction of 3.7/0.9 mm Hg for a 100 mmol/day decrease in sodium excretion BP declines were generally larger in older adults.
In patients 60 to 80 years of age BP 145/85 mm Hg taking 1 antihypertensive drug mean BP reduction of 4.3/2.0 mm Hg occurred after 3 months of sodium restriction to 80 mmol/d medication withdrawal 30 to m45 minutes brisk walking most days. However, BP and adverse outcome reductions did not achieve statistical significance in 70 to 80 year olds. Other studies have confirmed benefits of lifestyle modification in older subjects for BP Control.
Increased potassium intake, either by fruits and vegetables or pills, reduces BP. (In a meta-analysis of 33 RCTs) Potassium supplements significantly lowered BP by 3.1/2.0 mm Hg, and this effect was enhanced in persons with higher sodium intake. Two trials confirmed significant BP reductions (4.3/1.7 mm Hg and 10.0/ 6.0 mm Hg, respectively) among elderly patients with hypertension.
Potassium supplementation (90 mmol [3500 mg] daily) reduces BP in individuals with and without hypertension, Effects are greater in individuals with higher dietary sodium levels. In elderly patients with substantially impaired renal function, serum potassium should be monitored when supplementation is given.
The DASH eating plan outlines a diet Rich in fruits and vegetables High in Low-fat dairy products Potassium, Magnesium Calcium low in Total saturated fats Following this plan has been shown to produce mean reductions of 6 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 3 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure, combining the plan with a reduction in sodium intake produces additional blood pressure reduction. 1
The DASH diet showed a mean BP decrease of 11.4/5.5 mm Hg in patients with hypertension (mean age 47 years) with a diet enriched with fruits and vegetables and low in saturated and total fat. Similar BP reductions were seen in those 45 years of age The DASH combination diet lowered SBP more in African Americans (6.8 mm Hg) than in whites (3.0 mm Hg) (P0.05) and in persons with hypertension (11.4 mm Hg) than in persons without hypertension (3.4 mm Hg) (P0.05).
Calcium and magnesium supplementation results in minimal to no change in BP. There is no evidence that vitamin, fiber, or herbal supplements influence BP in the elderly.
Consumption of 2 alcohol drinks per day is strongly associated with BP elevations in epidemiologic studies. Evidence for meaningful BP reduction from lowering alcohol intake is limited in older adults
There is strong evidence that regular physical activity has an independent cardio protective effect. Regular aerobic exercise can lower systolic BP by an average of 4 mmHg and diastolic BP by an average of 2.5 mmHg.25
Advise all patients to become physically active, as part of a comprehensive plan to control hypertension, regardless of drug treatment. Aim for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week
1- Sever hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 180 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 110 mmHg) 2- Unstable angina 3- Uncontrolled heart failure 4- Severe aortic stenosis 5- Resting tachycardia or arrhythmias 6-symptoms (e.g. chest discomfort, shortness of breath) on low activity 7- Diabetes with poor glycaemic control Other acute illness.
The daily dose can be accumulated in shorter bouts (e.g. three 10-minute walks). Moderate-intensity physical activity (e.g. brisk walking, lawn mowing, low-paced swimming, cycling, gentle aerobics) will cause a slight increase in breathing and heart rate, and may cause light sweating. Advise against isometric exercise routines that may raise BP (e.g. weight lifting), except within professionally supervised programs
Exercise modality, frequency, intensity, and presence or absence of hypertension did not significantly affect the magnitude of BP decline.
In 33 individuals 60 to 69 years of age 9 months of training 3 times weekly 53% or 73% peak aerobic capacity BP reductions averaging 7/3 mm Hg and 6/9 mm Hg,Respectively. In 70 to 79 year old patients with hypertension 6 months training At 75% to 85% peak aerobic capacity. BP reductions of 8/9 mm Hg occurred after
In sedentary men (mean age 59 years) with prehypertension 9 months aerobic training 3 days per week Elicited a BP reduction of 9/7 mm Hg; men who combined exercise and a weight loss diet had a 11/9 mm Hg decline. Thus, aerobic exercise alone or combined with a weight reduction diet reduces BP in older adults with hypertension.
The finding that exercise at moderate intensities elicits BP reductions similar to those of more intensive regimens is especially meaningful for the elderly.
MEDITATION Meditation includes a variety of techniques, such as repetition of a word or phrase (the mantra) and careful attention to the process of breathing, to achieve a state of inner calm, detachment, and focus. Meditation was shown To reduce blood pressure in one well-designed study that addressed baseline blood pressure measurements Adequately Although other studies have been inconsistent.
Long-term follow-up of 202 patients in two small studies indicated that transcendental meditation may even reduce mortality in patients with hypertension. Meditation may have other benefits and does not appear to be harmful except to patients with psychosis
Classify all persons 70 or 75 years of age as high risk (ie, 10% risk of CAD in next 10 years), thus deserving therapy. Older patients with hypertension may be classified at high or very high risk (eg, those with diabetes mellitus).
Patient preferences and values are also important in deciding on the advisability and mode of therapy IN older individuals Quality of Life sometimes becomes more important than duration