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Element Elements and Compounds Compounds of Sodium Structure of Atom Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined.

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Presentation on theme: "Element Elements and Compounds Compounds of Sodium Structure of Atom Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined."— Presentation transcript:

1 Element Elements and Compounds Compounds of Sodium Structure of Atom Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Objectives: Production, properties and Uses of Na 2 CO 3, NaOH and NaHCO 3. The s-Block Elements

2 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum The s-Block Elements Sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3.10H 2 O) Sodium carbonate is also known as washing soda or soda ash. Diagonal Relationship and Irregularity Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium

3 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Production Industrial production of sodium carbonate is carried out by Solvay method (Solvay ammonia soda method). Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium

4 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements A saturated solution of sodium chloride is prepared which is also known BRINE. This brine is allowed to flow down an ammoniating tower. The ammoniated brine is allowed to trickle down a carbonating tower known as solvay tower. Here brine is mixed with carbon dioxide gas, produced by heating lime stone in a separate chamber called kiln. Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Production

5 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom CO 2 reacts with ammonia to form ammonium carbonate. Ammonium carbonate further reacts with CO 2 to form ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium bicarbonate then react with NaCl to form sodium bicarbonate. The s-Block Elements Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Production Due to exothermic nature of above reactions, solubility of NaHCO 3 increases. To counter this effect, lower part of Solvay tower is cooled, precipitates of NaHCO 3 are separated by vacuum filtration and washed to remove ammonium salts.

6 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Production Carbon dioxide is recirculated to carbonation tower. Quick lime is heated with NH 4 Cl to form NH 3 and calcium chloride (by product). Ammonia is used again in this process. Dry sodium bicarbonate is heated in rotary furnace called CALCINER to give anhydrous sodium carbonate or soda ash.

7 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom Properties The s-Block Elements Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Sodium carbonate is a crystalline white solid substance which possesses existence as decahydrate. When decahydrate is heated, it loses water of crystallisation and forms monohydrate. On heating at temperature higher than 373K, it becomes completely anhydrous and changes to white powder form which is known as soda ash.

8 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The aqueous solution absorbs CO 2 yielding sparingly soluble sodium bicarbonate. The s-Block Elements Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Properties Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 → 2NaHCO 3 It dissolves in acids with an effervescence of carbon dioxide and is causticised by lime to give caustic soda. Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 Na 2 CO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 → 2NaOH + CaCO 3 It undergoes hydrolysis to form an alkaline solution. Na 2 CO 3 + 2H 2 O → H 2 CO 3 + 2NaOH

9 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Uses  It is used for softening hard water.  A mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate is used as fusion mixture.  As an important laboratory reagent both in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium  It is used in paper, paints and textile industries.  It is used for washing purposes in laundry.  It is used in the manufacture of glass, borax, soap and caustic soda.

10 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye or caustic soda, has the molecular formula NaOH and is a highly caustic metallic base.

11 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Production Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium The industrial production of sodium hydroxide is carried out by electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride in Castner Kellner cell.

12 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Production Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Electrolysis of brine solution is carried out using mercury cathode and carbon anode. Sodium metal that is liberated at the cathode combines with mercury and forms sodium amalgam (Na-Hg) and chlorine is produced at the anode. Sodium hydroxide and dihydrogen gas are produced by reacting amalgam with water.

13 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Properties Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Sodium hydroxide is white translucent solid substance. Its crystals are highly hygroscopic.

14 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Uses Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium  Sodium hydroxide is used in the preparation of soap, paper, artificial silk and number of chemicals.  It is used in the refining of petroleum.  It is used in the purification of bauxite (mineral of aluminium).  It is used to prepare pure fat and oil.  It is also used as reagent in laboratory.

15 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO 3 ) Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Sodium hydrogen carbonate is also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda (baking powder).

16 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Production Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium NaHCO 3 is obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The initial reaction produces sodium carbonate. Further addition of carbon dioxide produces sodium bicarbonate, which at sufficiently high concentration will precipitate out of solution. CO NaOH → Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O Na 2 CO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O → 2 NaHCO 3 Sodium bicarbonate is also obtained by Solvay ammonia soda process.

17 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Properties Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate).

18 Element Elements and Compounds Extraction of Sulphur Non-metals Compounds A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion. Water, sugar, salt, carbon dioxide, methane etc are the examples of compounds. Mineral Coal and Mineral Oil Petroleum Structure of Atom The s-Block Elements Uses Lithium and SodiumCompounds of Sodium  Sodium bicarbonate is used as antiseptic.  It is used as fire extinguisher in extinguisher – cylinders.  It is used as an antacid for the acid in the stomach.  It is also used as reagent in laboratory.


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