Matter that has a fixed composition and definite properties. (chemical and physical)
There are two kinds of pure substances Elements Compounds
Elements Substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. Ex’s- any box on the periodic table Made of only 1 type of atom –The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element HUH?
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element??? The element sodium has certain properties –11 protons, 11 electrons…boiling point, etc
Compounds cont… Substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are CHEMICALLY combined. Elements are combined in a definite way and this changes their properties Na - lethal if ingested Cl- lethal if ingested NaCl- table salt
Molecules Two or more atoms bonded together… –Ex- O2, NaCl, etc.
Compounds Molecules made by two or more elements bonded together - always in a definite ratio Elements Molecules made of just one element Na (sodium) NaCl (sodium chloride/salt)
Cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical methods (physical changes) Fixed composition –Properties do not vary Can be expressed with a chemical formula –Ex H2O, NaCl, H
Components retain their characteristic properties and can be separated by physical means. http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/22540-together-but-separate- suspensions-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/22540-together-but-separate- suspensions-video.htm This sand and iron filings mixture can be separated using a magnet.
Homogenous mixtures look the same throughout Types: solutions, alloys, etc. Example: salt water, brass
Have the same composition throughout Components are indistinguishable May or may not scatter light Particle size is small
Can they still be separated by physical means ? YES!!! It may be more complicated, but it can be done…distillation, centrifugation
Solutions are … homogenous mixtures that do not scatter light. separated by physical means (including distillation or evaporation.) created when something is completely dissolved in pure water. Examples: sugar water, salt water
Parts of a Solution Solute- substance that dissolves in solvent ex. Salt (“U dissolve”) Solvent- substance that does the dissolving (ex.water) Well, not really, because you don’t dissolve, but you get the picture
Why don’t you dissolve? You are not “Miscible” –Miscible- two or more liquids that can dissolve into each other –Immiscible- liquids that do NOT mix Ex- oil and water
Heterogeneous mixtures are composed of large pieces that are easily separated by physical means (ie. density, polarity, metallic properties).
Do not have same composition throughout Components are distinguishable Particle size is medium or large Examples: fruit salad, vegetable soup, etc.
Tyndall Effect Scattering of light due to particles
1. Colloid –medium particles Particles stay suspended in the mixture and scatter light (Tyndall effect) Ex- mayonnaise, milk, fog
1. Suspension- large particles Tyndall effect Particles will settle out when the mixture is allowed to stand Ex-muddy water, OJ with pulp
PropertyDescriptionExample HardnessAbility of 1 substance to scratch another Diamond can scratch glass ViscosityResistance to flowing Water= low visc. Honey= high visc. SolubilityAbility to dissolve in water NaCl dissolves easily in water so it’s soluble
PropertyDescriptionExample SuperconductorSubstance that conducts electricity at lower temperatures Tin, aluminum, used in trains SemiconductorSubstance that has a resistance b/w a conductor & insulator Silicon-used in computers or radios
The physical properties of sodium (NaCl) metal can be observed or measured. It is a soft, lustrous, silver-colored metal with a relatively low melting point and low density. Hardness, color, melting point and density are all physical properties.
A physical change occurs when the substance changes state but does not change its chemical composition. For example: water freezing into ice, cutting a piece of wood into smaller pieces, etc. The form or appearance has changed, but the properties of that substance are the same (i.e. it has the same melting point, boiling point, chemical composition, etc.)
Freezing water (a.k.a. wah! wah!) is a physical change because it’s still water if it’s frozen or liquid (it’s the same junk!!) ICE ICE BABY!!
Melting point Boiling point Vapor pressure Color State of matter Density Electrical conductivity Solubility Adsorption to a surface Hardness
Chemical properties describe the way a substance can change or react to form other substances. These properties, then, must be determined using a process that changes the identity of the substance of interest.
One of the chemical properties of alkali metals such as sodium and potassium is that they react with water. To determine this, we would have to combine an alkali metal with water and observe what happens. In other words, we have to define chemical properties of a substance by the chemical changes it undergoes.
A chemical change occurs when a substance changes into something new. This occurs due to heating, chemical reaction, etc. You can tell a chemical change has occurred if the density, melting point or freezing point of the original substance changes. Many common signs of a chemical change can be seen (bubbles forming, mass changed, etc).
–You can’t go back to the original substances after a chemical change (reaction) has occurred!! Baking soda reacting w/ vinegar Burning wood
There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or a physical change. In other words, matter cannot be created nor destroyed. It is just converted from one form to another