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MINERALS Chapter 7. Learning Objectives Describe the functions of minerals Identify food sources of minerals List minerals lacking in American diets List.

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Presentation on theme: "MINERALS Chapter 7. Learning Objectives Describe the functions of minerals Identify food sources of minerals List minerals lacking in American diets List."— Presentation transcript:

1 MINERALS Chapter 7

2 Learning Objectives Describe the functions of minerals Identify food sources of minerals List minerals lacking in American diets List foods that are the best sources of these minerals

3 Learning Objectives Give tips to ensure mineral intakes are sufficient Identify cooking techniques that promote retention of nutrients cause nutrient loss from foods

4 Minerals Essential for life and health Must be obtained from food Do not provide energy

5 Minerals Needs are small  measured in  milligrams (1/1000 of a gram) or  micrograms (1/1000 of a milligram)

6 Minerals 15 are essential and must be from food Many minerals occur in nature All are inorganic elements no carbon in structure All are single elements

7 Shortfall Nutrients – or Nutrients of Concern Many people do not get adequate amounts of: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D* Vitamin E Vitamin K Choline Calcium* Magnesium Potassium * Sodium* VitaminsMinerals * Biggest nutrient gaps Most diets also lacking dietary fiber Most children and adults get too much sodium

8 Minerals Found in water and foods Remain intact during digestion Stable, not easily destroyed by heat, light, oxygen

9 Two Groups of Minerals Major Minerals (100 mg or more a day) Trace Minerals (less than 20 mg/day) CalciumIodine ChlorideIron MagnesiumZinc PhosphorusSelenium PotassiumFluoride SodiumChromium SulfateCopper BiotinManganese Molybdenum

10 General Functions of Minerals Maintain the body’s fluid and acid/base balance Provide structural components for blood, bone, tooth cells Sustain immune system

11 General Functions of Minerals Co-factors in metabolic systems to repair cells and protect from oxidative damage Participate in energy production, muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses

12 Food Label for Nutrients  % daily value  Goal 100%  Good Source- 10-19% of daily value  Excellent Source- 20% or more of daily value

13 Calcium Most abundant mineral in the body 99% used to form and maintain teeth and bones at all ages Calcium necessary throughout life for bone mass and bone strength

14 Calcium Plays key role in blood clotting Aids muscle and nerve function Necessary for regular heartbeat, muscle contraction

15 Calcium  DRI  12-18 yo- 1300 mg/day  19- 50 yo- 1000 mg/day  Over 50- 1200 mg/day  Older adults, 70+- 1500 mg/day

16 Calcium Higher absorption in children and during pregnancy Not all calcium absorbed Deficiencies lead to poor bones, teeth and increased fractures

17 Calcium - Sources Milk, milk alternatives Yogurt Cheese Yogurt Canned fish with bones Calcium fortified orange juice

18 Calcium - Sources Tofu set with calcium Greens Rhubarb Legumes

19 Food Issues with Calcium Dairy products optimal source because protein, vitamin D and lactose boost absorption Tofu often processed with calcium to set. Little calcium in other soy products. Foods fortified with calcium, calcium citrate, well absorbed form

20 Food Issues with Calcium Full-fat dairy products high in cholesterol and saturated fat Using a non-fat dried milk, evaporated milk and yogurt in cooking boosts calcium intake Canned salmon with bones, sardines are rich sources of calcium

21 Osteoporosis  Calcium deficiency  “brittle bones”  Hip, spine, wrist  Peak bone formation- first 3 decades  Weight bearing exercise, calcium, vitamin D, K, magnesium intake  Risk- alcohol, smoking, high sodium

22 Osteoporosis and Calcium  Age and bone calcium  Maximizing bone mass


24 Potassium Less than 5% of Americans get optimal potassium intake Major role in  Maintaining fluid balance  Works opposite sodium  Acid/base balance  Healthy blood pressure  Heart beat  Bone health

25 Potassium DRI- 4700 mg/day Found in fruits, vegetables, milk, legumes Deficiencies linked to hypertension Low intake related to dehydration, confusion, weakness

26 Sodium Daily Value – 2400 mg Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010  2300 mg  1500 mg for ages 51+, African Americans. hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes

27 What Sodium Does in the Body Regulates body fluids Regulates acid-base balance Helps nerves and muscles function properly Helps glucose and amino acids move from blood into cells

28 Problem with Excess Sodium Can contribute to fluid retention May contribute to hypertension  Sodium sensitive  Elderly  People with diabetes or kidney disease  African Americans

29 Sodium Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys Excreted in urine Lost through the skin via sweating

30 Sodium and Athletes  Sodium lost through sweat  Replace fluids with water, but not sodium  Hyponatremia  Muscle cramps  Clear sports drinks  Exercise 1 hour or longer  Consume plenty of sodium

31 Where is Sodium Found? Table salt Salt (NaCl) is 40% sodium 1 gram of salt is 400 mg sodium 1 teaspoon of salt is 5.6 grams 1 teaspoon of salt adds about 2300 mg of sodium to a dish

32 Where is Sodium Found? Flaked salts weighs less than 5.6 grams per teaspoon Less sodium per teaspoon

33 Where is Sodium Found 75% salt from manufacturers 15% from salt added in cooking or at the table 10% comes from natural content

34 Where is Sodium Found? Common ingredients Table salt Baking soda Baking powder

35 Where is Sodium Found? Monosodium glutamate (flavor enhancer) Sodium benzoate (preservative) Sodium caseinate (thicken, bind) Sodium citrate (control acidity) Sodium nitrite (Curing agent) Sodium phosphate (emulsifer, stabilizer)

36 Where is Sodium Found? Common condiments Fish sauce Soy sauce Soy sauce, low-sodium Tamari sauce

37 Where is Sodium Found? Mustard Capers Catsup Anchovies Hoisin sauce

38 Where is Sodium Found Processed foods Canned soups Pre-prepared sauces Cured, smoked and deli meats Frozen foods, pizza Cheeses Cereal, ready-to-eat Breads Snack foods

39 Sodium Issues in Food Salt biologically preferred flavor Sodium compounds perform many food functions in processed foods Chefs should try to lower sodium sources as much as possible. READ LABELS

40 Sodium

41 Magnesium Works with potassium to reduce blood pressure In chlorophyll of green leafy vegetables

42 Magnesium Best food sources:  Bran  Seafood  Green leafy vegetables  Legumes  Nuts

43 Iron Hemoglobin and Myoglobin in blood cells that carrys oxygen to cells of body muscles Heme iron (from animal sources) better absorbed than iron from plant foods Vitamin C- helps iron absorption from plant foods; so does some heme iron

44 Iron Best food sources:  Shellfish  Liver  Meats (especially red meats)  Fortified cereals, meatless protein sources  Legumes  Molasses Cooking in cast iron pans adds iron to acidic foods. Useful for vegetarians

45 Iron Deficiency Anemia  Low hemoglobin  Most common  Breastfed infants, kids growth spurts  Pre-menopausal or pregnant women, female athletes  Chronic bleeding conditions  Poor diet  Symptoms  Poor growth  Tired  Cold  Poor performance

46 Iron RDA’s  Infants > 6 months: 11 mg/day  Teens: 11-15 mg/day  Adult males, post menopause: 8 mg/day  Women 19-50 yo: 18 mg/day  Pregnancy: 27 mg/day

47 Iodine Necessary to make the hormone thyroxin, that regulates metabolic rate and body temperature Food sources:  Iodized salt  Fish  Shellfish  Foods grown in iodine rich soil

48 Iodine Residues of cleaning compounds on foodservice equipment add to intake ? Increased need ? Inadequate intake Disinfectants Dough conditioners Dairy industry Designer salts

49 Fluoride For formation of teeth and bones and to keep them strong, anti-bacterial Food sources:  Fluoridated water  Toothpaste  Canned seafood  Tea

50 Fluoride Most community water is fluoridated at 1 part fluoride to 1 million parts water. This level recommended by the dental society and US government Excess can mottle teeth Controversy….

51 Adding Vitamins and Minerals Fortification Vitamins and minerals are added Fortification common in breakfast cereals, milk and dairy alternatives, fruit juices

52 Adding Vitamins and Minerals Enrichment Vitamins and minerals are added to replace nutrients lost in processing Enrichment is common in breads breakfast cereals, and other grain products

53 Dangers of Excess Vitamins and Minerals Amounts found in foods are safe Regular intake of high-dose supplements can be dangerous, stressing liver and kidney

54 Bioavailability Bioavailability is the degree to which a nutrient from foods is absorbed and used by the body.

55 Mineral Bioavailability Influenced By: Nutrients in high dose supplements not used as well as nutrients in foods Binders such as oxylates and phytates - decrease absorption Cooking can increase absorption - breaks bonds between minerals and binders

56 Oxalic and Phytic Acids Oxalic Acid  Binds some minerals (calcium) so they are partially absorbed  Found in:  Spinach  Oranges  Rhubarb  Tea  Coffee  Bananas  Ginger  Almonds Phytic Acid  Binds some minerals (iron and zinc) so they are partially absorbe d  Found in:  Cereals  Nuts  Sesame seeds  Soybeans  Wheat  Pumpkin  Beans

57 Nutrient Bioavailability is Enhanced By: Enzymes and bacteria in digestive tract can increase amount of nutrients absorbed Vitamin C boosts absorption of iron present in plant foods Protein and vitamin D boost calcium utilization Fermentation processes, such as those used to make miso and tempeh, may improve iron bioavailability

58 Nutrient Bioavailability is Reduced By: Too much of one mineral can reduce the absorption of another Polyphenols in regular and herbal teas, coffee and red wine bind some iron Cooking softens cell walls of food so more nutrients released

59 Raw Food Pros  Vitamins and minerals aren’t lost from heat or leaching into water  No damage to enzymes in vegetables and fruits Cons  Cooking destroys salmonella and E.coli  Cooked vegetables may have more bioavailable nutrients  More palatable  Softens food for easier digestion

60 Nutrient Retention Minerals are more stable than vitamins Minerals cannot be destroyed by: Heat Light Oxygen Minerals can be destroyed by: Leaching into water that is discarded

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