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A review of the general chemistry and properties of sodium Michael Wiegand April 4 th, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "A review of the general chemistry and properties of sodium Michael Wiegand April 4 th, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 A review of the general chemistry and properties of sodium Michael Wiegand April 4 th, 2013

2 Overview  Elemental sodium  Chemistry  Physics  Properties  Biology  Practical uses  Burning meteors  Asymptotic giant branch stars

3 Elemental sodium  Alkali metal  ns 1 configuration  Cannot be found in its pure form naturally  2.6% of Earth’s biosphere  Main sources include: rock salts, brines and seawaters  Separated using molten salt in the Downs process  Pure sodium is very reactive  Salts are very corrosive

4 Downs process

5 Physical Properties PropertySodium (Na) Atomic number, Z11 Ground state electronic configuration[Ne]3s 1 Enthalpy of atomization, Δ a H ⁰ (298K)/kJmol -1 108 Dissociation enthalpy of M-M bond in M 2 (298K)/ kJmol -1 74 Melting point, mp/K371 Boiling point, bp/K1156 Standard enthalpy of fusion, Δ fus H ⁰ (mp)/kJmol -1 2.6 First ionization energy, IE 1 / kJmol -1 495.8 Second ionization energy, IE 2 / kJmol -1 4562 Metallic radius, r metal /pm186 Ionic radius, r ion /pm102 Standard enthalpy of hydration of M +, Δ hyd H ⁰ (298K)/kJmol -1 -404 Standard entropy of hydration of M +, Δ hyd S ⁰ (298K)/kJmol -1 -110 Standard Gibbs energy of hydration of M +, Δ hyd G ⁰ (298K)/kJmol -1 -371 Standard reduction potential, E ⁰ M + / M /V -2.71 NMR active nuclei (% abundance, Nuclear spin) 23 Na (100, I = 3/2)

6 Other notable properties Economically the most important alkali metal Yellow Bunsen flame Saline lakes (Lake Assal in Djibouti, Africa)

7 Fraunhofer lines  Spectral lines that correspond with different levels of absorption in the optical spectrum of the Sun  Different lines are classified by emission lines of the hydrogen atom using the Balmer series  The D ₁ and D ₂ lines (with a center wavelength of 589nm) represent the sodium doublet, and this line is a reference for transitions between the ground and excited state for alkali metals

8 Sodium-potassium pump  Active transport in several organisms, responsible for homeostasis between intra- and extracellular fluids  Propagation of action potentials  Key component in locomotion and central nervous system (CNS) communication  Three sodium ions move out of the cell (depolarization)  Two potassium ions move into cell (hyperpolarization)  Release of neurotransmitters

9 Sodium-potassium pump

10 Bonding chemistry  High affinity to bind with atoms in Groups 16-17 (usually found as Na+ in compounds)  Formation of salts (with halides), oxides (with oxygen) and various alloys  Monodentate ligand  Very low 1 st IE

11 Structural chemistry (NaCl)  NaCl unit cell is face-centered cubic (~74% PF)  Radius ratio is between 0.414- 0.732  Coordination number: 6  Stoichiometry: 1  Interstitial holes: octahedral


13 Sodium reacting with water


15 Practical uses  Soapmaking  Deicing agent  Nutrient  Warfare  Paper  Heat-exchanger coolant  Street lighting  Fireworks

16 Disposal of sodium  Stored in submerged hydrocarbons i.e. kerosene  Sodium was once used in chemical warfare, and after WWII the US disposed of large barrels of sodium in lakes (while standing far away)  For safe disposal of small amounts, sodium is buried in sand in clay pots while water is slowly poured on the mixture. Sodium silicate is produced in a controlled manner

17 Sodium in the mesosphere and Milky Way Abundance, burning and production

18 Production Meteorites  Burning in the mesosphere (upper atmosphere) AGB stars  Dredge-up process starting with carbon  Proton capture

19 Why do stars appear yellow?  When sodium is ignited, the excited valence electron drops from the 3p subshell to the lower-energy 3s subshell  This produces a yellow flame (approximately 589nm)  About 100 tons of meteorite burn up in the upper atmosphere (mesosphere) every day  This produces about 100kg of pure sodium  At altitudes of 85km, the burning sodium binds to smoke molecules and creates a ‘yellow’ glare in the skyline

20 AGB stars  ‘Older’ stars (heavy stars) that evolve from low- intermediate mass stars with masses up to 8 MSUN  Account for 90% of all dust ejected into the Milky Way Galaxy  Elements ejected: C, N, F and Na  Until recent studies, abundances of these element were unexplainable

21 Dust

22 Ring of fire

23 Dredge-up process  Nuclear fusion due to hot bottom burning  12 C and oxygen molecules located in the hydrogen burning shell (HBS) are burned into 14 N, ascend to higher shells  Excess nitrogen is immersed (into the next shell) in a single pulse by 18 F and 18 O and converted into 22 Ne  Neon is then converted into sodium via proton capture in the NeNa chain, and then harvested in the higher layers

24 Summary  One of the 27 elements essential for human health  Osmotic equilibrium, pH and blood pressure balance  Solid at room temperature (NaK liquid at room temperature)  Has many practical uses, mainly due to its affinity for bonding  Interesting fact: If all the sodium chloride was extracted from the oceans and dried, it could cover (1) the surface of the USA to a depth of a mile or (2) the surface of the Earth to about 500 feet

25 Works Cited (References)  Brown, Theodore L. Chemistry : The Central Science. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Web.  Cavallo, Robert M., Allen V. Sweigart, and Roger A. Bell. "The Production of Sodium and Aluminum in Globular Cluster Red Giant Stars." 1996.Web..; ph/9604023  Chang, Raymond. Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences. Sausalito, CA 94965: University Science Books, 2000. Print.  Housecroft, Catherine E., and A. G. Sharpe. Inorganic Chemistry. 4th ed. Harlow, England ; New York: Pearson, 2012. Web.  Izzard, Robert, et al. "Reaction Rate Uncertainties: NeNa and MgAl in AGB Stars." 2006.Web..;  J. M. C. Plane. "A new time-resolved model of the mesospheric Na layer: constraints on the meteor input function." 2004.Web..; age=39  Mowlavi, Nami. "Sodium Production in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars." (1999)Web.  Pauling, Linus. College Chemistry; an Introductory Textbook of General Chemistry. 3d ed. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1964. A Series of Books in Chemistry; Variation: Series of Books in Chemistry (San Francisco, Calif.) Web.  Richard W. Hill, Gordon A. Wyse, Margaret Anderson. Animal Physiology, 3rd Ed. New York, NY: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated, 2012. Print.

26 Works Cited (Pictures/Movies)          explosion-gif explosion-gif    

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