Presentation on theme: "BY KWASI SMITH Making Iron Oxide (Rust). Rust Rust is scientifically called oxidation, which occurs when oxygen comes in long- term contact with certain."— Presentation transcript:
Rust Rust is scientifically called oxidation, which occurs when oxygen comes in long- term contact with certain metals. Over time, the oxygen combines with the metal at an atomic level, forming a new compound called an oxide and weakening the bonds of the metal itself. If the base metal is iron or steel, the resulting rust is properly called iron oxide. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-rust.htm
The goal + Stoichiometry My goal in this reaction is to create Iron Oxide (Rust) by means of exposing Iron to Oxygen under prime conditions. This is an exothermic reaction, which means that it gives off heat. Fe +O2=O2=Fe 2 O 3 55.84g/mol32g/mol159.67g/mol 5g2.84g14.21g 0.089/mol0.067/mol0.445/mol
1 st Reaction For my first reaction, I filled two 1liter sandwich bags with 5 grams of Iron Powder, 1 gram of Vermiculite, 1ml water, and 2 grams of NaCl (table salt). During the reaction, one of the bags were open as to have an unlimited amount of oxygen, and the other bag was closed with approximately 1 liter of air. Over time, the bags began to get warmer as the Iron in the bags reacted with the surrounding oxygen. The bag granted unlimited oxygen had a higher overall temperature than the closed bag.
2 nd Reaction What I have changed in the second reaction is the amount of water being used in one of the bags in reaction from only 1 milliliter to 2 milliliters. Both bags will be open to see how much the extra water will influence the reaction and the data taken.
Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law can be viewed as arising from the kinetic pressure of gas molecules colliding with the walls of a container in accordance with Newton's laws. But there is also a statistical element in the determination of the average kinetic energy of those molecules. The temperature is taken to be proportional to this average kinetic energy; this invokes the idea of kinetic temperature. One mole of an ideal gas at STP occupies 22.4 liters. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/idegas.html
Ideal Gas Law continued Pressure x Volume = Moles x Ideal Gas Constant x Temperature With the appropriate variables, the formula looks like this… PV=nRT I can use this formula to calculate the amount of oxygen I will need to completely react the iron. This formula tells me how much air I would need to affect the Iron, but air consists of only 20% oxygen. So five times the given amount of air will be needed to completely affect the Iron.
The Catalyst Catalysis is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst. Unlike other reagents that participate in the chemical reaction, a catalyst is not consumed by the reaction itself. A catalyst may participate in multiple chemical transformations. Catalysts that speed the reaction are called positive catalysts. Substances that interact with catalysts to slow the reaction are called inhibitors (or negative catalysts). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalysis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalysis The Catalyst in this reaction is the NaCl, or the salt. When added to the water, it can react with the Iron more quickly and effectively. The salt causes the iron to react with the Oxygen in the atmosphere quicker than it would without it.
Bonding When an element steals electrons from another element, it is called an Ionic Bond. When electrons are shared between elements it is called a Covalent bond. This particular reaction is an ionic bond. Oxygen is a very electron rich element that can hold onto its electrons well, as opposed to Iron which is a metal it has no charge, making it easy for Oxygen to steal its electrons. Oxygen steals 3 electrons from Iron and Oxygen becomes O 3 while Iron becomes +Fe 3.
Bonding Continued Essentially, this is what it would look like…
Activation Energy In chemistry, the minimum amount of energy that is required to activate atoms or molecules to a condition in which they can undergo chemical transformation or physical transport is called activation energy. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/4535/activation-energy