Presentation on theme: "Sodium Chloride Process Brian Meeuwsen & Katie Neta."— Presentation transcript:
Sodium Chloride Process Brian Meeuwsen & Katie Neta
Isolation & Purification Solution Mining (54%) Solution: 26% salt 73.5% water 0.5% impurities Evaporation = 99.8% purity Removes calcium, magnesium, and sometimes sulfate US food-grade salt = vacuum pan evaporation Rock Salt Mining (32%) % purity https://www.google.com/search?q=rock+salt+mining&client=firefox-a&hs=dan&rls=org.mozilla:en- US:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=A_WCUvaUGent2wWJ9oCYBQ&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=997&bih=604#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=3mz7HsH4fpObGM%3A%3Bp3XCDXCuujyu6M% 3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.himalayan-natural-salt-lamps.com%252Fmine-salt-photo-gallary%252Frock-salt-mine-pakistan-01.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.himalayan-natural- salt-lamps.com%252Fnatural-crystal-salt-mine-pakistan.php%3B600%3B450
Isolation and Purification Solar Salt Production (14%) 99.98% purity 6 times the cost of rock salt mining 20 times the cost of solution mining
Electrolysis Concentration is highly important Differ in products formed Dilute NaCl = 2H 2 : O 2 Concentrate NaCl = H 2 : 2NaOH : Cl 2 Cathode (reduction): Na + + e - = Na Anode (oxidation): 2 Cl - = Cl e - Electrolytic process: 2Na + + 2Cl - + 2H 2 O → 2Na + + 2OH - + Cl 2 + H 2 https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/electrochemistry/electrolysis/electrolysis-of-molten-sodium-chloride//
Caustic Soda Production Reaction Pathway 2 NaCl + CaCO 3 → Na 2 CO 3 + CaCl 2 NaCl + CO 2 + NH 3 + H 2 O → NaHCO 3 + NH 4 Cl (I) CaCO 3 → CO 2 + CaO (II) 2 NH 4 Cl + CaO → 2 NH 3 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O (III) 2 NaHCO 3 → Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 (IV) Why Important?
Uses: Medical Invented by Hartog Jakob Hamburger 1896 In vitro study of RBC lysis Frequently used in hospitals Normal Saline; IV medications Fluid & electrolyte replenisher Regulation within body maintains: Osmotic pressure Acid-base balance Volume of circulating body fluids $36 million/year
Catalytic Properties Thermolysin Activation Increases the activity of Thermolysin by times when in the presence of 4M NaCl at pH 7.0 at 25 degrees Celsius. Used as a Green Catalyst in aqueous reactions spirooxindole derivative synthesis Efficiency of tellurium zeolite in the dehydrogenation reactions of ethylbenzene to styrene and n-hexane or cyclohexane to benzene.
Economics Type of Salt Price Per Ton Vacuum Pan$170 Solar Salt$70 Rock Salt$35 Salt in Brine$8
Economics (2010) Major Producers China = 60 Million Tons (21%) United States = 45 Million Tons (16%) Germany = 16.5 Million Tons (6%) Major Exporters to the US Canada (41%), Chile (31%), Mexico (9%), The Bahamas (6%), Other (13%) US has 27 Companies operating 60 plants in 16 different states for NaCl Production US Industry valued at over $1.8 Billion Recent News (2010) Major rock salt company in Detroit, MI National Salt Reduction Initiative
Reference List profiles/uses.tcl?edf_substance_id= occurrence-commercial-preparation.html 0Exp2Proc%20NaClSynthV6.pdf Kirk-Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 5th Ed. 2. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Print.