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Figure 48.1 Overview of a vertebrate nervous system

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Presentation on theme: "Figure 48.1 Overview of a vertebrate nervous system"— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure 48.1 Overview of a vertebrate nervous system

2 Figure 48.2 Structure of a vertebrate neuron

3 Figure 48.2x Neurons

4 Figure 48.3 The knee-jerk reflex

5 Supporting Cells or Glial Cells of the Nervous System
Types of Glial Cells 1. Radial Glial Cells: form tracks by which the neurons can migrate throughout the developing embryo 2. Astrocytes: these are in the CNS and provide nutritional support for mature neurons; they also form tight junctions between capillaries in the brain forming a blood-brain barrier. 3. Oligodendrocytes (in CNS) and Schwann cells (in PNS) form myelin sheaths around axons. Myelin is mostly lipid and is nonconductive In multiple sclerosis this myelin sheath is degrading and nerve impulse transmission is disrupted.

6 Figure Schwann cells

7 Figure 48.6 Measuring membrane potentials
So we say that the RESTING POTENTIAL of a neuron is -70 mV. It exists because of differences in the ion composition in the intracellular and extracellular environment.

8 Figure 48.7 The basis of the membrane potential
Cell Permeability to ions is dependent upon the number of channels available for a specific ion. -most cells, including neurons, have greater permeability to K+ than Na+.

9 How Does A Cell Maintain It’s Membrane Potential
There is a great tendency for K+ to diffuse out of the cell. As this occurs, there is a greater and greater negative charge within the cell due to the loss of K+ and the anions left inside. This buildup of negative charge creates a charge gradient for cations (potassium) to flow back in. Eventually potassium would be entering the neuron at the same rate it is leaving. Sodium is also moving across the membrane. There is a higher concentration outside the cell than inside so sodium moves into the cell. This also would eventually end up at equilibrium such that the concentration gradient for sodium would also disappear.

10 To avoid reaching this equilibrium and then have no net tendency for either ion to flow in or out, there is the sodium potassium pump that pumps sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell. In this way, the concentration gradients are established for ions to flow. Ions flow across this membrane during nerve impulse conduction. How Neurons Work

11 Figure 48.8 Graded potentials and the action potential in a neuron

12 Figure 48.9 The role of voltage-gated ion channels in the action potential (Layer 1)

13 Figure 48.9 The role of voltage-gated ion channels in the action potential (Layer 2)

14 Figure 48.9 The role of voltage-gated ion channels in the action potential (Layer 3)

15 Figure 48.9 The role of voltage-gated ion channels in the action potential (Layer 4)

16 Figure 48.9 The role of voltage-gated ion channels in the action potential (Layer 5)

17 Refractory Period Both gates, the activation and inactivation gates, are closed and so no stimulus can cause a depolarization and thus action potential. Strong vs. weak stimuli Strong stimuli set off action potentials with great frequency and the nerve depolarizes as fast as the refractory period will allow. Weak stimuli do not generate as frequent of action potentials. So it is the number of action potentials per second that indicate the intensity of the stimulus.

18 Figure 48.10 Propagation of the action potential
Sodium ions enter the neuron’s axon. The sodium ions then flow inside the axon and depolarize an adjacent region. The action potential cannot flow in the reverse direction because that area is repolarizing and cannot generate an action potential. Both activation and inactivation gates for sodium are closed. This process occurs in unmyelinated axons. These can be found in humans, squids, lobsters. Myelinated axons in many vertebrates, including humans, speed up conduction by saltatory conduction.

19 Figure 48.11 Saltatory conduction

20 Figure 48.12 A chemical synapse
Mouse Party: Drug Interactions

21 Figure 48.13 Integration of multiple synaptic inputs
EPSP: when the voltage is brought closer to the threshold IPSP: when voltage is made more negative and thus farther from the threshold.

22 Table 48.1 The Major Known Neurotransmitters

23 Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine a) Receptor for this NT determines whether it is excitatory or inhibitory. Between a neuron and a muscle cell it is excitatory but the receptors on cardiac muscle cells generate an inhibitory responses to reduce strength of contraction and rate of heart beat. Epinephrine and norepinephrine a) can be both excitatory or inhibitory Dopamine a) lack of dopamine is implicated in Parkinson’s disease b) some hallucinogenic drugs act on dopamine receptors

24 Serotonin a) sleeeeeeep disorders as well as hallucinogenic effects Gama aminobutyric acid or GABA Endorphins

25 Figure 48.15 Diversity in nervous systems
Nerve Nets of Hydra control the movement of the body cavity Sea Star nerve ring and radial nerve allows for movement of each radial arm. Planarian beginning of cephalization where sensory neurons are localized to form a small brain nerve cords develop that help with directional movement this is the beginning of a CNS Mollusks and Insects: ventral nerve cords and ganglia or collections of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS from which nerves will radiate

26 Figure 48.16 The nervous system of a vertebrate
Brain and spinal cord have a fluid-filled space called the ventricles and central canal, respectively. These cavities are filled with cerebrospinal fluid White Matter: myelinated axons in the CNS Gray Matter: unmyelinated axons, dendrites and nuclei.

27 Figure 48.17 Functional hierarchy of the peripheral nervous system
Sympathetic Division: heart rate speeds up, bronchi dilate, digestion slows, pupils dilate; liver converts glycogen to glucose, adrenaline is secreted. Parasympathetic Division: decrease in heart rate, digestion occurs, no adrenaline released, pupils constrict.

28 Figure The main roles of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in regulating internal body functions

29 Figure 48.19 Embryonic development of the brain

30 The Hindbrain: Medulla and Pons and Cerebellum
Part of what is called the brainstem. Develops from the embryonic hindbrain Medulla: control centers for breathing, heart rate, digestion Pons: breathing Both the medulla and pons have nuclei or groups of nerve cells that send axons to other parts of the brain. Sensory info goes through medulla and pons on its way to cerebrum. Motor info goes through medulla and pons on its way to muscles so movement is coordinated. This is where axons from one side of brain cross such that the right side of brain controls left side of body.

31 Figure 48.20 The main parts of the human brain

32 Cerebellum a) coordinates movement with visual and motor senses b) may be involved in remembering motor responses c) received info about positions of joints and length of muscles during movement, and coordinates this with visual input. d) balance; hand-eye coordination

33 Midbrain From the embryonic midbrain Reticular Activating System is major component a) lots of nuclei b) regulates sleep, alertness c) receives input from all sorts of sensory neurons and filters it before sending it to cerebral cortex.

34 Figure 48.21 The reticular formation

35 Forebrain: Cerebrum, Epithalamus, Thalamus and Hypothalamus
a) produces cerebrospinal fluid b) associated with it is the pineal gland which is involved in regulating bio. rhythms such as reproduction, biol. clocks. The main hormone produced by the pineal gland is melatonin Thalamus a) sensory input center and then sends signals on to the cerebrum b) motor relay center for signals coming from the cerebrum. 3. Hypothalamus

36 Cerebrum a) Right and left cerebral hemispheres b) connected by the corpus callosum (white myelinated fibers) c) outer area is gray matter

37 Figure 48.20x1 Cerebral cortex, gray and white matter

38 Figure 48.24 Structure and functional areas of the cerebrum

39 Figure 48.25 Primary motor and somatosensory areas of the human cerebral cortex

40 Figure 48.26 Mapping language areas of the cerebral cortex

41 Figure 48.27 The limbic system

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