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The Minerals. Minerals Minerals serve three roles: Minerals serve three roles: They provide structure in forming bones and teeth They provide structure.

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Presentation on theme: "The Minerals. Minerals Minerals serve three roles: Minerals serve three roles: They provide structure in forming bones and teeth They provide structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Minerals

2 Minerals Minerals serve three roles: Minerals serve three roles: They provide structure in forming bones and teeth They provide structure in forming bones and teeth They help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance They help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance They help regulate cellular metabolism by becoming part of enzymes and hormones that modulate cellular activity They help regulate cellular metabolism by becoming part of enzymes and hormones that modulate cellular activity

3 The Minerals--An Overview Major minerals are found in large quantities in the body, while trace minerals are found in small quantities. Major minerals are found in large quantities in the body, while trace minerals are found in small quantities. Minerals receive special handling in the body. Minerals receive special handling in the body. They may bind with other substances and interact with other minerals, thus affecting absorption. They may bind with other substances and interact with other minerals, thus affecting absorption. Inorganic Elements Inorganic Elements

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5 The Minerals--An Overview Nutrient Interactions Nutrient Interactions Sodium and calcium Sodium and calcium Phosphorus and magnesium Phosphorus and magnesium Often caused by supplements Often caused by supplements Varied Roles Varied Roles Sodium, potassium and chloride function primarily in fluid balance. Sodium, potassium and chloride function primarily in fluid balance. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium function primarily in bone growth and health. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium function primarily in bone growth and health.

6 Sodium Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body and is responsible for maintaining fluid balance. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body and is responsible for maintaining fluid balance. Dietary recommendations include a moderate intake of salt and sodium. Dietary recommendations include a moderate intake of salt and sodium. Excesses may aggravate hypertension. Excesses may aggravate hypertension. Most of the sodium in the diet is found in table salt and processed foods. Most of the sodium in the diet is found in table salt and processed foods.

7 Sodium Sodium Roles in the Body Sodium Roles in the Body Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys

8 Sodium Sodium Recommendations Sodium Recommendations Minimum Adults: 500 mg/day Minimum Adults: 500 mg/day Adequate Intake (2004) Adequate Intake (2004) For those years of age, 1,500 mg/day For those years of age, 1,500 mg/day For those years of age, 1,300 mg/day For those years of age, 1,300 mg/day For those older than 70 years of age, 1,200 mg/day For those older than 70 years of age, 1,200 mg/day The upper intake level for adults is 2,300 mg/day. The upper intake level for adults is 2,300 mg/day. Maximum % Daily Value on food labels is set at 2400 mg/day. Maximum % Daily Value on food labels is set at 2400 mg/day.

9 Sodium Sodium and Hypertension Sodium and Hypertension Salt has a great impact on high blood pressure. Salt restriction does help to lower blood pressure. Salt has a great impact on high blood pressure. Salt restriction does help to lower blood pressure. Salt sensitivity is a term to describe individuals who respond to a high salt intake with high blood pressure. Salt sensitivity is a term to describe individuals who respond to a high salt intake with high blood pressure. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is a diet plan that helps to lower blood pressure. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is a diet plan that helps to lower blood pressure. Sodium and Bone Loss (Osteoporosis) Sodium and Bone Loss (Osteoporosis) High sodium intake is associated with calcium excretion. High sodium intake is associated with calcium excretion.

10 Sodium Sodium in Foods Sodium in Foods Large amounts in processed foods (75% of sodium in the diet) Large amounts in processed foods (75% of sodium in the diet) Table salt (15% added sodium in the diet) Table salt (15% added sodium in the diet) Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads and vegetables (approximately 10% of sodium in the diet) Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads and vegetables (approximately 10% of sodium in the diet)

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12 Sodium Sodium Deficiency Sodium Deficiency Sodium and water must be replaced after vomiting, diarrhea or heavy sweating. Sodium and water must be replaced after vomiting, diarrhea or heavy sweating. Symptoms are muscle cramps, mental apathy, and loss of appetite. Symptoms are muscle cramps, mental apathy, and loss of appetite. Salt tablets without water induce dehydration. Salt tablets without water induce dehydration. Be careful of hyponatremia during ultra- endurance athletic activities. Be careful of hyponatremia during ultra- endurance athletic activities.

13 Sodium Sodium Toxicity and Excessive Intakes Sodium Toxicity and Excessive Intakes Edema and acute hypertension Edema and acute hypertension Prolonged high intake may contribute to hypertension. Prolonged high intake may contribute to hypertension.

14 Chloride Chloride in an essential nutrient that plays a role in fluid balance. Chloride in an essential nutrient that plays a role in fluid balance. It is associated with sodium and part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. It is associated with sodium and part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Chloride Roles in the Body Chloride Roles in the Body Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance Part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach Part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach Necessary for proper digestion Necessary for proper digestion Chloride Intakes Chloride Intakes Abundant in foods Abundant in foods Abundant in processed foods Abundant in processed foods

15 Chloride Chloride Deficiency and Toxicity Chloride Deficiency and Toxicity Deficiency is rare. Deficiency is rare. Losses can occur with vomiting, diarrhea or heavy sweating. Losses can occur with vomiting, diarrhea or heavy sweating. Dehydration due to water deficiency can concentrate chloride to high levels. Dehydration due to water deficiency can concentrate chloride to high levels. The toxicity symptom is vomiting. The toxicity symptom is vomiting.

16 Potassium Potassium is another electrolyte associated with fluid balance. Potassium is another electrolyte associated with fluid balance. It is associated with hypertension. It is associated with hypertension. It is found in fresh foods — mostly fruits and vegetables. It is found in fresh foods — mostly fruits and vegetables.

17 Eat More Fruits and Vegetables!

18 Potassium Potassium Roles in the Body Potassium Roles in the Body Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance Facilitates many reactions Facilitates many reactions Supports cell integrity Supports cell integrity Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions Maintains the heartbeat Maintains the heartbeat

19 Potassium Potassium Recommendations and Intakes Potassium Recommendations and Intakes Adequate Intake (2004) Adequate Intake (2004) For all adults, 4,700 mg/day For all adults, 4,700 mg/day Fresh foods are rich sources. Fresh foods are rich sources. Processed foods have less potassium. Processed foods have less potassium.

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21 Eat More Fruits and Vegetables!

22 Potassium Potassium and Hypertension Potassium and Hypertension Low potassium intakes increase blood pressure. Low potassium intakes increase blood pressure. High potassium intakes prevent and correct hypertension. High potassium intakes prevent and correct hypertension.

23 Potassium Potassium Deficiency Potassium Deficiency Symptoms include muscular weakness, paralysis, confusion, increased blood pressure, salt sensitivity, kidney stones, and bone turnover. Symptoms include muscular weakness, paralysis, confusion, increased blood pressure, salt sensitivity, kidney stones, and bone turnover. Later signs include irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness, and glucose intolerance. Later signs include irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness, and glucose intolerance.

24 Potassium Potassium Toxicity Potassium Toxicity Results from supplements or overconsumption of potassium salts Results from supplements or overconsumption of potassium salts Can occur with certain diseases or treatments Can occur with certain diseases or treatments Symptoms include muscular weakness and vomiting. Symptoms include muscular weakness and vomiting. If given into a vein, potassium can cause the heart to stop. (and you die) If given into a vein, potassium can cause the heart to stop. (and you die)

25 Calcium Most of calcium (99%) is found in the bones. Most of calcium (99%) is found in the bones. The remaining calcium (1%) is found in the blood and has many functions. The remaining calcium (1%) is found in the blood and has many functions. Bone and blood calcium are kept in balance with a system of hormones and vitamin D. Bone and blood calcium are kept in balance with a system of hormones and vitamin D. Blood calcium remains in balance at the expense of bone calcium and at the risk of developing osteoporosis in later years. Blood calcium remains in balance at the expense of bone calcium and at the risk of developing osteoporosis in later years.

26 Calcium Calcium in Bones Calcium in Bones Hydroxyapatite are crystals of calcium and phosphorus. Hydroxyapatite are crystals of calcium and phosphorus. Mineralization is the process whereby minerals crystallize on the collagen matrix of a growing bone, hardening of the bone. Mineralization is the process whereby minerals crystallize on the collagen matrix of a growing bone, hardening of the bone. There is an ongoing process of remodeling constantly taking place. There is an ongoing process of remodeling constantly taking place.

27 Calcium Calcium and Disease Prevention Calcium and Disease Prevention May protect against hypertension May protect against hypertension DASH diet that is rich in calcium, magnesium, and potassium DASH diet that is rich in calcium, magnesium, and potassium May be protective relationship with blood cholesterol, diabetes, and colon cancer May be protective relationship with blood cholesterol, diabetes, and colon cancer Calcium and Obesity Calcium and Obesity Maintaining healthy body weight Maintaining healthy body weight Calcium from dairy foods has better results than calcium from supplements. Calcium from dairy foods has better results than calcium from supplements. More research is needed. More research is needed.

28 Calcium Calcium Balance Calcium Balance Works with vitamin D Works with vitamin D Works with parathyroid hormone and calcitonin Works with parathyroid hormone and calcitonin Calcium rigor develops when there are high blood calcium levels (muscles contract). Calcium rigor develops when there are high blood calcium levels (muscles contract). Calcium tetany develops when there are low blood calcium levels and causes uncontrolled muscle contractions. (and you die). Calcium tetany develops when there are low blood calcium levels and causes uncontrolled muscle contractions. (and you die). Abnormalities are due to hormone or lack of vitamin D. Abnormalities are due to hormone or lack of vitamin D. Bones get robbed of calcium before blood concentrations get low. Bones get robbed of calcium before blood concentrations get low.

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31 Calcium Calcium Roles in the Body Calcium Roles in the Body Calcium Absorption Calcium Absorption Absorption rate for adults is 25% of calcium consumed. Absorption rate for adults is 25% of calcium consumed. Calcium-binding protein is needed for calcium absorption. Calcium-binding protein is needed for calcium absorption.

32 Calcium Factors that enhance absorption Factors that enhance absorption Stomach acid Stomach acid Vitamin D Vitamin D Lactose Lactose Growth hormones Growth hormones Factors that inhibit absorption Lack of stomach acid Vitamin D deficiency High phosphorus intake High-fiber diet Phytates in seeds, nuts, and grains Oxalates in beet greens, rhubarb, and spinach

33 Calcium Calcium Recommendations and Sources Calcium Recommendations and Sources Calcium Recommendations (1997 Adequate Intake) Calcium Recommendations (1997 Adequate Intake) AI Adolescents: 1300 mg/day AI Adolescents: 1300 mg/day AI Adults: 1000 mg/day if years of age AI Adults: 1000 mg/day if years of age AI Adults: 1200 mg/day if greater than 50 years of age AI Adults: 1200 mg/day if greater than 50 years of age Upper level for adults: 2500 mg/day Upper level for adults: 2500 mg/day Peak bone mass is the bone’s fullest potential in size and density developed < 30 yo Peak bone mass is the bone’s fullest potential in size and density developed < 30 yo

34 Calcium Calcium Recommendations and Sources Calcium Recommendations and Sources Calcium in Milk Products Calcium in Milk Products Drink milk. Drink milk. Eat yogurt and cheese. Eat yogurt and cheese. Add dry milk during food preparation. Add dry milk during food preparation.

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36 Calcium Calcium Recommendations and Sources Calcium in Other Foods Tofu, corn tortillas, some nuts and seeds Mustard and turnip greens, broccoli, bok choy, kale, parsley, watercress, and seaweed (nori) Legumes Oysters and small fish consumed with bones Mineral waters, calcium-fortified orange juice, fruit and vegetable juices, high-calcium milk Calcium-fortified cereals and breads

37 Fig , p. 420 Cauliflower, watercress, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, kale, mustard greens, bok choy, broccoli, turnip greens ≥ 50% absorbed ≈ 30% absorbed Milk, calcium-fortified soy milk, calcium-set tofu, cheese, yogurt, calcium- fortified foods and beverages ≈ 20% absorbed Almonds, sesame seeds, pinto beans, sweet potatoes ≤ 5% absorbed Spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard Stepped Art

38 Calcium Calcium Deficiency Calcium Deficiency is the disease where the bones become porous and fragile Osteoporosis is the disease where the bones become porous and fragile No obvious symptoms of mineral loss in bones appear. It is silent. No obvious symptoms of mineral loss in bones appear. It is silent. Deficiency in children can present as stunted growth. Deficiency in children can present as stunted growth. Toxicity symptoms include constipation, increased risk of urinary stone formation, kidney dysfunction, and interference with the absorption of other minerals. Toxicity symptoms include constipation, increased risk of urinary stone formation, kidney dysfunction, and interference with the absorption of other minerals.

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42 Phosphorus Most of the phosphorus is found in the bones and teeth. Most of the phosphorus is found in the bones and teeth. It is also important in energy metabolism, as part of phospholipids, and as part of genetic materials. It is also important in energy metabolism, as part of phospholipids, and as part of genetic materials.

43 Phosphorus Phosphorus Roles in the Body Phosphorus Roles in the Body Mineralization of bones and teeth Mineralization of bones and teeth Part of every cell Part of every cell Genetic material (DNA and RNA) Genetic material (DNA and RNA) Part of phospholipids Part of phospholipids Energy transfer Energy transfer Buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance Buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance

44 Phosphorus Phosphorus Recommendations and Intakes (1997 RDA) Phosphorus Recommendations and Intakes (1997 RDA) RDA Adults: 700 mg/day for ages years RDA Adults: 700 mg/day for ages years Upper intake level for those years of age is 4,000 mg/day. Upper intake level for those years of age is 4,000 mg/day. Sources include all animal foods including meat, fish and poultry, milk and eggs Sources include all animal foods including meat, fish and poultry, milk and eggs Phosphorus toxicity symptoms include the calcification of nonskeletal tissues, especially the kidneys. Phosphorus toxicity symptoms include the calcification of nonskeletal tissues, especially the kidneys.

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46 Magnesium Magnesium supports bone mineralization, and is involved in energy systems and in heart functioning. Magnesium supports bone mineralization, and is involved in energy systems and in heart functioning. It is widespread in foods. It is widespread in foods.

47 Magnesium Magnesium Roles in the Body Magnesium Roles in the Body Bone mineralization Bone mineralization Building of protein Building of protein Enzyme action Enzyme action Normal muscle contraction Normal muscle contraction Nerve impulse transmission Nerve impulse transmission Maintenance of teeth by preventing dental caries Maintenance of teeth by preventing dental caries Functioning of the immune system Functioning of the immune system Blood clotting Blood clotting

48 Magnesium Magnesium Intakes (1997 RDA) Magnesium Intakes (1997 RDA) RDA Adult Men: 400 mg/day for years of age RDA Adult Men: 400 mg/day for years of age RDA Adult Women: 310 mg/day for years of age RDA Adult Women: 310 mg/day for years of age Upper level for adults: 350 mg nonfood magnesium/day Upper level for adults: 350 mg nonfood magnesium/day Nuts and legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, seafood, chocolate and cocoa Nuts and legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, seafood, chocolate and cocoa Hard water and some mineral waters Hard water and some mineral waters

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50 Magnesium Magnesium Deficiency Magnesium Deficiency Deficiencies are rare. Deficiencies are rare. Symptoms Symptoms Weakness and confusion Weakness and confusion Convulsions in extreme deficiency Convulsions in extreme deficiency Bizarre muscle movements of the eye and face Bizarre muscle movements of the eye and face Hallucinations Hallucinations Difficulties in swallowing Difficulties in swallowing Growth failure in children Growth failure in children Develops from alcohol abuse, protein malnutrition, kidney disorders and prolonged vomiting and diarrhea Develops from alcohol abuse, protein malnutrition, kidney disorders and prolonged vomiting and diarrhea

51 Magnesium Magnesium and Hypertension Magnesium and Hypertension Protects against heart disease and hypertension Protects against heart disease and hypertension Low magnesium restricts walls of arteries and capillaries. Low magnesium restricts walls of arteries and capillaries. Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium Toxicity Symptoms from nonfood magnesium are diarrhea, alkalosis, and dehydration. Symptoms from nonfood magnesium are diarrhea, alkalosis, and dehydration.

52 Sulfate Sulfate requirements are met by consuming a varied diet. Sulfate requirements are met by consuming a varied diet. It is found in essential nutrients including protein. It is found in essential nutrients including protein. There is no recommended intake and there are no known deficiencies. There is no recommended intake and there are no known deficiencies.

53 Osteoporosis and Calcium

54 Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of aging. Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of aging. Strategies to reduce risks involve dietary calcium. Strategies to reduce risks involve dietary calcium.

55 Bone Development and Disintegration Cortical bone is the outer shell compartment of bone. Cortical bone is the outer shell compartment of bone. Creates the shell of long bones Creates the shell of long bones Creates the shell caps on the end of bones Creates the shell caps on the end of bones Releases calcium slower than trabecular bone Releases calcium slower than trabecular bone Losses can begin in the 40s. Losses can begin in the 40s.

56 Bone Development and Disintegration Trabecular bone is the inner lacy matrix compartment of bone. Trabecular bone is the inner lacy matrix compartment of bone. Can be affected by hormones in the body signaling the release of calcium Can be affected by hormones in the body signaling the release of calcium Provides a source for blood calcium when needed Provides a source for blood calcium when needed Losses can become significant in the 30s for men and women. Losses can become significant in the 30s for men and women. Results in type I osteoporosis Results in type I osteoporosis Can result in spine and wrist fractures and loss of teeth Can result in spine and wrist fractures and loss of teeth Women are affected 6 times as often as men. Women are affected 6 times as often as men.

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58 Bone Development and Disintegration Losses of both trabecular and cortical bone result in type II osteoporosis. Losses of both trabecular and cortical bone result in type II osteoporosis. Can result in compression fractures of the spine Can result in compression fractures of the spine Hip fractures can develop. Hip fractures can develop. Twice as common in women as in men Twice as common in women as in men The diagnosis of osteoporosis is performed using bone density tests. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is performed using bone density tests. Individual risk factors for osteoporosis are also considered. Individual risk factors for osteoporosis are also considered.

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61 Age and Bone Calcium Maximizing Bone Mass Maximizing Bone Mass Children and adolescents need to consume enough calcium and vitamin D to create denser bones. Children and adolescents need to consume enough calcium and vitamin D to create denser bones. With a higher initial bone mass, the normal losses of bone density that occur with age will have less detrimental effects. With a higher initial bone mass, the normal losses of bone density that occur with age will have less detrimental effects. Minimizing Bone Loss Minimizing Bone Loss Ensuring adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are consumed Ensuring adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are consumed Hormonal changes can increase calcium losses. Hormonal changes can increase calcium losses.

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63 Gender and Hormones Men at lower risk than women Men at lower risk than women Hormonal changes Hormonal changes Rapid bone loss in nonmenstruating women Rapid bone loss in nonmenstruating women Medications can be used that inhibit osteoclasts or stimulate osteoblasts. Medications can be used that inhibit osteoclasts or stimulate osteoblasts. Soy offers some protection. Soy offers some protection.

64 Genetics and Ethnicity Genes may play a role. Genes may play a role. Environment also – diet and calcium Environment also – diet and calcium Physical activity, body weight, alcohol, and smoking have a role. Physical activity, body weight, alcohol, and smoking have a role.

65 Physical Activity and Body Weight Muscle strength and bone strength go together. Muscle strength and bone strength go together. Heavy body weights and weight gains place a stress on bones and promote bone density. Heavy body weights and weight gains place a stress on bones and promote bone density.

66 Smoking and Alcohol Smokers Smokers Less dense bones Less dense bones Damage can be reversed when smoking stops. Damage can be reversed when smoking stops. Alcohol abuse Alcohol abuse Enhances fluid excretion, thus increases calcium losses Enhances fluid excretion, thus increases calcium losses Upsets hormonal balance for healthy bones Upsets hormonal balance for healthy bones Slows bone formation Slows bone formation Stimulates bone breakdown Stimulates bone breakdown Increases risks of falling Increases risks of falling

67 Nutrients Dietary Calcium – the key to prevention Dietary Calcium – the key to prevention Other Nutrients Other Nutrients Adequate protein Adequate protein Adequate vitamin D Adequate vitamin D Vitamin K protects against hip fractures. Vitamin K protects against hip fractures. Magnesium and potassium help to maintain bone mineral density. Magnesium and potassium help to maintain bone mineral density. Vitamin A Vitamin A Omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids Fruits and vegetables Fruits and vegetables Reduce salt Reduce salt

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69 A Perspective on Supplements Calcium-rich foods are best. Calcium-rich foods are best. Supplements may be needed when requirements are not met through foods. Supplements may be needed when requirements are not met through foods. Types of supplements Types of supplements Antacids contain calcium carbonate. Antacids contain calcium carbonate. Bone meal or powdered bone, oyster shell or dolomite are calcium supplements. Bone meal or powdered bone, oyster shell or dolomite are calcium supplements. Contain lead?? Contain lead?? Small doses are better absorbed. Small doses are better absorbed. Different absorption rates from different types of calcium supplements Different absorption rates from different types of calcium supplements

70 Some Closing Thoughts Age, gender and genetics are beyond control. Age, gender and genetics are beyond control. There are effective strategies for prevention that include adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity, moderation of alcohol, abstaining from cigarettes, and supplementation if needed. There are effective strategies for prevention that include adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity, moderation of alcohol, abstaining from cigarettes, and supplementation if needed.


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