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Sea water Solution of different salts Sodium chloride Water filtration Evaporate the solution until dryness. By Directly heating/heat with steam bath Filtration.

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Presentation on theme: "Sea water Solution of different salts Sodium chloride Water filtration Evaporate the solution until dryness. By Directly heating/heat with steam bath Filtration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sea water Solution of different salts Sodium chloride Water filtration Evaporate the solution until dryness. By Directly heating/heat with steam bath Filtration (remove insoluble impurities) Evaporate some water so to form a saturated solution Filtration (filter the crystal from the mixture ) Dried the crystal by filter paper Distillation ( boils the sea water, then water turns to vapour, vapour is condensed back to liquid by cooling and is collected. Main components contains Impure powderPure crystal by uses Food flavouring, Make chlorine bleach by Natural evaporation (large industry) Crystallization (cool at room temp slowly) -- as temp decreases, solubility of salt decreases, some salt cannot dissolve anymore, crystal is formed.

2 sea water folded filter paper Residue (sand / mud) filter funnel Filtrate (clear sea water) stand glass rod Filtration of sea water.

3 (a) Direct heating (b) Heating with a steam-bath sea water heat sea water steam water wire gauze tripod evaporating basin Performing evaporation in the school laboratory…

4 sodium chloride crystals water slowly evaporates at room temperature Filtered sea water more concentrated solution saturated with respect to sodium chloride sodium chloride crystals

5 Sea water Solution of different salts Sodium chloride Water filtration Evaporate the solution until dryness. By Directly heating/heat with steam bath Filtration (remove insoluble impurities) Evaporate some water so to form a saturated solution Filtration (filter the crystal from the mixture ) Dried the crystal by filter paper Distillation ( boils the sea water, then water turns to vapour, vapour is condensed back to liquid by cooling and is collected. Main components contains Impure powderPure crystal by uses Food flavouring, Make chlorine bleach by Natural evaporation (large industry) Crystallization (cool at room temp slowly) -- as temp decreases, solubility of salt decreases, some salt cannot dissolve anymore, crystal is formed.

6 Distillation using simple apparatus. end of delivery tube should be above the distillate delivery tube receiver test tube pure water (distillate) heat boiling tube clamp thermometer water (cooling agent) sea water anti-bumping granule (ensure smooth boiling)

7 Distillation using ‘Quickfit’ apparatus. heat thermometer pear-shaped flask anti-bumping granule solution water condenser receiver adaptor test tube (as receiver) cold water in (from tap) water out (to sink) thermometer bulb distillate cold water

8 Sea water Solution of different salts Sodium chloride Water Flame test Silver nitrate solution White precipitate fomed Anhydrous copper(II) sulphate Main components contains Sodium ionsChloride ions (in solution form) Tested by Excess dilute nitric acid Tested by Dry cobalt chloride paper White to blueBlue to pink Pure water Boil at sharp 100 o C (boiling point test)

9 Testing the presence of sodium ions in sodium chloride By flame test

10 Step 2 non-luminous flame sample of the salt to be tested Dip the wire into a crushed sample (or solution) of the salt to be tested.

11 Step 3 flame colour due to metal ions Heat the end of the wire strongly in a non- luminous flame.

12 Compound containingFlame colour Potassium ionLilac Sodium ionBrilliant golden yellow Calcium ionBrick-red Copper(II) ionBluish green The results of flame test of some metal compounds are as follows:

13 Potassium nitrate Calcium chloride Copper(II) sulphate Sodium carbonate

14 Step 1 platinum wire concentrated hydrochloric acid Moisten a clean platinum wire with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

15 Test for chloride ions sea water add silver nitrate solution, followed by excess dilute nitric acid white precipitate of silver chloride Fig.3.16 Silver nitrate test for the presence of chloride ions.

16 silver nitrate sodium nitrate + sodium chloride (white precipitate) silver chloride +


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