Presentation on theme: "CLASS PRACTICE 3 a. What four ions are present in sodium chloride solution? Na+(aq), Cl-(aq), H+(aq), OH-(aq) b. In Figure 21.3, write the ionic equation."— Presentation transcript:
1 CLASS PRACTICE3a. What four ions are present in sodium chloride solution?Na+(aq), Cl-(aq), H+(aq), OH-(aq)b. In Figure 21.3, write the ionic equation for the reactions at:(i). the anode2Cl-(aq) Cl2(g) + 2e-
2 CLASS PRACTICE (ii). the cathode 2H+(aq) + 2e- H2(g) c. Explain why sodium hydroxide forms during the electrolysis.Chloride ions and hydrogen ions are removed, leaving sodium ions and hydroxide ions, i.e. sodium hydroxide.
3 CLASS PRACTICE4 To prepare a solution of chlorine bleach, dilute sodium chloride solution is not electrolysed. Give the reason.Oxygen gas is formed instead of chlorine gas. Chlorine is needed to react with the sodium hydroxide solution.
4 CLASS PRACTICE5 State some differences between the laboratory preparation and the industrial manufacture of bleach.1. Different electrodes.2. No porous membrane in laboratory cell.3. Three products separated in industrial cell.4. Bleach formed inside the laboratory cell, separately from the industrial cell.5. Industrial product is purer (cf. Class Practice 6).
5 CLASS PRACTICE6 In the industrial manufacture, the chlorine at the anode is not mixed with the sodium hydroxide solution inside the cell.Why not?The bleach formed is mixed with other substances (e.g. NaOH, NaCl) and so is not pure.
6 CLASS PRACTICE7 The electrolysis of brine is also carried out in a mercury cathode cell.a. What electrodes does this cell use?mercury cathode, graphite (sometimes titanium) anodeb. What is formed at each electrode?Cathode - sodiumAnode - chlorine
7 CLASS PRACTICE c. How is sodium hydroxide formed? Sodium (dissolved in the mercury) is removed and reacts with water.
8 CLASS PRACTICE 8 a. In the industrial electrolysis of brine, name: (i). the raw materials; andsolid salt(ii). all the products.hydrogen, chlorine, sodium hydroxide solution
9 CLASS PRACTICE End b. Is there any waste substance in this process? No.Hydrogen is used to make hydrochloric acid; chlorine and sodium hydroxide form bleach.End