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Major Minerals Objectives After reading Chapter 7 and class discussion, you will be able to: –Define major minerals Inorganic elements Micronutrients.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Minerals Objectives After reading Chapter 7 and class discussion, you will be able to: –Define major minerals Inorganic elements Micronutrients."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Major Minerals

3 Objectives After reading Chapter 7 and class discussion, you will be able to: –Define major minerals Inorganic elements Micronutrients Macrominerals Stability, Indestructible Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfur, Magnesium,

4 Objectives Define bioavailability (p.226) Identify recommendations, upper limits for –Calcium, Potassium, Sodium Describe the functions of –Calcium, Potassium, Sodium Identify content of foods for –Calcium, Potassium, Sodium Identify sodium content of salt Describe how to reduce sodium intake

5 The Minerals Major minerals –Calcium –Chloride –Magnesium –Phosphorus –Potassium –Sodium –Sulfur Trace Minerals –Chromium –Copper –Fluoride –Iodine –Iron –Manganese –Molybdenum –Selenium –Zinc

6 The Minerals - An Overview

7 Major Minerals Inorganic elements –Stable; especially in preparation The body’s handling of minerals –Some are like water soluble vitamins Potassium-easily absorbed and excreted –Some are like fat soluble vitamins Calcium-need carriers to be absorbed & excreted; excess stored; toxicity

8 Major Minerals Concert effect/interaction Functions varied; primarily –fluid balance and body structure Variable bioavailability –Binders Phytates-legumes, grains Oxalates-spinach, rhubarb

9 Sodium Hypertension –Salt sensitivity Fm Hx, Age, DM Ethnicity; Obesity Osteoporosis –  NaCl in   Ca out Foods

10 Sodium: In Summary Adequate Intake: –1500 mg/day (19-50 yr old) [5.5%] –1300 mg/day (51-70 yr old) –1200 mg/day (>70 yr old) –500 mg/day minimum requirement Upper Limit: 2300 mg/day [18.8%] Chief functions in the body –Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance –Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction

11 Sodium: In Summary Deficiency symptoms –Muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite Toxicity symptoms –Edema, acute hypertension Significant source –Table salt, soy sauce(1t NaCl=2 gNa) –Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads, and vegetables –Large amounts in processed foods

12 Ubiquitous Sodium Sodium Everywhere!! Sodium in the soil. All foods grown in soil has sodium. All foods which eat products from the soil contain sodium

13 Where does dietary sodium come from? 75% salt from manufacturers 15% from salt added in cooking or at the table 10% comes from natural content

14 Sodium

15 Decreasing Sodium Intake Use fresh, whole, unprocessed foods Use little or no salt in cooking Use little or no salt at the table Use other sodium-free spices: –Basil, bay leaves, curry, cumin, garlic, ginger, mint, oregano, pepper, paprika, rosemary, thyme; lemon, vinegar, wine Use low-salt or salt-free commercial products READ Labels!

16 Decreasing Sodium CAUTION Foods prepared in brine Pickles, olives, sauerkraut Smoked, processed meats Bologna, corned/chipped beef, bacon, ham, lunch meat, frankfurters, sausage, salt pork Smoked/processed fish Anchovies, caviar, salted/dried cod, herring, sardines, smoked salmon

17 Decreasing Sodium Snack foods Potato chips, pretzels, salted nuts, crackers Condiments Bouillon, MSG, soy, teriyaki, horseradish, catsup, mustard, Worcestershire, barbeque Cheeses: esp. processed Canned/instant soup CAUTION

18 READ the Label Where’s the sodium in this breakfast? –½ c. orange juice –1 c. bran flakes –½ c. skim milk –1 scrambled egg –1 slice bacon Appedix A p. 532, #334 p. 540, #479 p. 520, #121 p. 522, #149 p. 558, #759

19 Where does the sodium we consume come from?

20 Potassium: In Summary Adequate Intake (AI) for adults: 4700 mg/day; No UL Chief functions in the body –Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance –Facilitates many reactions –Supports cell integrity –Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions

21 Potassium: In Summary Deficiency symptoms –Muscular weakness, arrhythmias –Increased blood pressure –Glucose intolerance –Confusion Toxicity symptoms –Muscular weakness –Vomiting –If given into a vein, can stop the heart

22 Potassium: In Summary Significant sources –All whole foods, fresh foods –Meats, milks, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes

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24 Calcium

25 Calcium: In Summary Chief functions in the body –Mineralization of bones and teeth –Involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting –Blood pressure, immune defenses

26 Calcium: In Summary 1997 adequate intake (AI) –Adolescents: 1300 mg/day –Adults yrs: 1000 mg/day –Adults 51 & older: 1200 mg/day –Elderly women: 1500 mg/day Upper level for adults: 2500 mg/day

27 Calcium: Controversy Women’s Health Initiative –Links calcium supplementation to Vascular calcification, kidney stones  risk of cardiovascular events –http://www.nhlb.nih.gov/whi/cad.htmhttp://www.nhlb.nih.gov/whi/cad.htm IOM: upper level for women >50: 2000 mg/day British Medical Journal-61,000 –Fractures only in those with intake below 750mg/day –Warensjo, et al, BMJ, 2011:342:d1473 CAUTION

28 Calcium: In Summary Deficiency symptoms –Stunted growth in children –Bone loss (osteoporosis) in adults

29 Calcium: In Summary Toxicity symptoms –Constipation –Increased risk of urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction –Interference with absorption of other minerals

30 Sources of Calcium Milk and milk products; Small fish with bones; Tofu (bean curds); Greens (broccoli, chard); Legumes

31 Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

32 Calcium Bioavailability –The degree to which a nutrient is absorbed and available to be used by the body. CAUTION

33 Osteoporosis And Calcium Bone development and disintegration –Bone density

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36 Healthy vs. osteoporotic trabecular bone

37 Osteoporosis And Calcium Age and bone calcium Maximizing bone mass

38 Osteoporosis And Calcium Fig H12-3, p.431

39 Osteoporosis And Calcium Physical activity and body weight Smoking and alcohol

40 Osteoporosis And Calcium Dietary calcium is the key to prevention Other nutrients in supporting role –Vitamin D –Magnesium –Sodium –Phosphorus

41 Osteoporosis And Calcium

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43 A perspective on supplements –Antacids –Bone meal –Oyster shell –Dolomite (limestone)

44 Calcium Supplements Administration: several times/day Dose at 500mg (or less) Supplements –Calcium carbonates=40% –Calcium citrate=21% –Calcium lactate=13% –Calcium gluconate=9%

45 Calcium Dissolvability Drop calcium tablet into 6 oz glass of vinegar Stir occasionally Calcium tablet should dissolve in 30 minutes

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47 Objectives After reading Chapter 7 and class discussion, you will be able to: –Define major minerals Inorganic elements Micronutrients Macrominerals Stability, Indestructible Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfur, Magnesium,

48 Objectives Define bioavailability Identify recommendations, upper limits for –Calcium, Potassium, Sodium Describe the functions of –Calcium, Potassium, Sodium Identify content of foods for –Calcium, Potassium, Sodium Identify sodium content of salt Describe how to reduce sodium intake

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