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AP BIOLOGY Review Campbell Chapter 7. Plants that can tolerate extreme cold have a higher percentage of phospholipids with ______________ fatty acid tails.

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Presentation on theme: "AP BIOLOGY Review Campbell Chapter 7. Plants that can tolerate extreme cold have a higher percentage of phospholipids with ______________ fatty acid tails."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP BIOLOGY Review Campbell Chapter 7

2 Plants that can tolerate extreme cold have a higher percentage of phospholipids with ______________ fatty acid tails. SATURATED UNSATURATED unsaturated Cholesterol can be called a “temperature buffer” because at higher temperatures (like body temp) it makes the phospholipids ________ fluid by restraining their movements. less more At lower temperatures cholesterol hinders the close packing of phospholipids so it __________ the temperature required for membranes to solidify. lowers raises less lowers

3 Proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic core of a membrane are called _________________ Membrane proteins with carbohydrates attached are called ____________________ Living things must control the balance of water and ions in their tissues. This is called _____________________ Integral proteins glycoproteins Osmoregulation (kind of homeostasis)

4 If a Paramecium were to swim from a hypotonic environment to an isotonic one, would the activity of its contractile vacuole increase or decrease? It would decrease, because less water would be entering Campbell Concept check 7.3

5 An environment in which the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal is called _________________ An animal cell placed in this type of environment will _____________________ swell & burst shrink stay the same size The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called _________________ isotonic stay the same size osmosis

6 An environment in which the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside is called _________________ An animal cell placed in this type of environment will _____________________ swell & burst shrink stay the same size Membrane transport that requires energy is called ________________ hypertonic shrink ACTIVE

7 The Na + -K + pump in animals causes the cytoplasm inside cells to be more ___________ than the surrounding extracellular fluid negative positive Membrane lipids with carbohydrates attached are called ____________________ In passive transport molecules always move ___________ their concentration gradient. down up negative glycolipids DOWN

8 An environment in which the concentration of solutes outside is less than inside the cell is called _________________ An animal cell placed in this type of environment will _____________________ swell & burst shrink stay the same size Channel proteins that facilitate the movement of water across cell membranes are called ___________________ hypotonic swell and burst aquaporins

9 Transport proteins called _____________ proteins function by forminng a hydrophilic tunnel that allows charged molecules or ions to pass through the hydrophobic portion of a cell membrane. Transport proteins called _____________ proteins hold on to their passenger molecules, change shape, and shuttle them across the membrane. As a cell grows, its plasma membrane expands via ___________________. endocytosis exocytosis channel carrier Exocytosis; when vesicles fuse with membrane they become part of the membrane Campbell Concept check 7.5

10 Name 3 kinds of passive transport Name 3 kinds of active transport Ion channels that open or close in response to a signal are called ___________________ Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion Na + -K + pump, co-transport, bulk transport, endocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis, exocytosis gated

11 Name the kind of transport Facilitated diffusion with an Ion channel Facilitated diffusion with a carrier

12 A transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane is called an ________________________ When nerve cells establish a voltage across their membrane with a sodium-potassium pump, does this pump use ATP or produce ATP? Electrogenic pump The pump uses ATP. To establish a voltage, ions would have to be pumped against their gradient, which requires energy Campbell Concept check

13 Name this kind of transport Give an example of bulk transport Sodium-potassium pump Endocytosis (phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis) Exocytosis

14 Animation from: Name this kind of transport used by bacteria to take in food or white blood cells to engulf bacteria phagocytosis

15 If this vesicle is releasing products outside the cell, this type of transport is called ________________________ If this vesicle is bringing small molecules & fluids into the cell, this type of transport is called ______________________ exocytosis pinocytosis

16 The currently accepted model that describes cell membranes as the arrangement of constantly moving proteins embedded in or attached to a bilayer or phospholipids is called the ______________________________________ Click here to See Fluidity Animation from: Fluid mosaic model

17 Name this kind of transport that enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances The molecules that bind to these receptors are called _____________________ Give an example of a molecule that moves into cells in this way _________________ Receptor mediated endocytosis ligands Cholesterol LDL ligands bind receptors and attached cholesterol is taken into cell

18 Name the kind of transport that moves molecules from high concentration to low across a membrane without using energy and without the help of any carriers or vesicles _______________________ DIFFUSION

19 To send a signal, a neuron may carry out exocytosis of chemical signals that are recognized by a 2 nd neuron. In some cases, the 1 st neuron ends the signal by taking up the signaling molecules by endocytosis. Would you expect this to occur by pinocytosis or by receptor mediated endocytosis? EXPLAIN Campbell Concept check Receptor mediated endocytosis because in this case one specific molecule needs to be taken up at a particular time; pinocytosis takes up molecules in a non-specific manner

20 Name this kind of transport in which transport of one substance DOWN its gradient is coupled to the movement of another moving UP the gradient. cotransport

21 Explain why the sodium-potassium pump is NOT considered a cotransporter. Campbell concept check 7.4 Each ion is being transported against its gradient. If either ion were flowing DOWN its electrochemical gradient, this would be Co-transport. Co-transport couples the movement of one substance down its gradient with one moving up.

22 Name the kind of transport used by Golgi bodies in secretory cells to export their products. Name the kind of transport used by cholesterol to enter cells Name the molecule that provides energy for active transport exocytosis Receptor mediated endocytosis ATP

23 The swelling and bursting of animal cells when placed in a hypotonic environment is called _________________ The shrinking and shriveling up of animal cells when placed in a hypertonic environment is called ___________________ cytolysis crenation

24 The swelling of plant cells when placed in a hypotonic environment ______________ the osmotic pressure inside the cell increases decreases We would say the cell is ___________ turgid flaccid increase turgid

25 The pulling away of the cell membrane from the cell wall in plant cells when placed in a hypertonic environment is called _______________________ A plant cell that has lost water and is “limp” is called _____________________ plasmolysis flaccid

26 Carrier proteins like this one are ______________proteins. Integral peripheral integral Carbon dioxide and oxygen move across membranes in cells by _________________ Diffusion

27 Kind of endocytosis used to take in large particles or whole cells. phagocytosis The voltage across a membrane is called __________________ membrane potential

28 When you sit in the bathtub, your fingers get wrinkly because of the water entering your skin cells. The bathtub water is a ____________ solution compared to your skin cells hypotonic Hypotonic isotonic hypertonic

29 A membrane that lets certain molecules pass through and not others is called _______________ Semi permeable OR selectively permeable

30 Name a kind of transport that uses vesicles to move substances across a membrane Pinocytosis, phagocytosis, Exocytosis, endocytosis Name the kind of transport that moves WATER across cell membranes OSMOSIS

31 A freshwater fish has about 1% salt in his body. Freshwater is close to 0% salt. Will water move into or out of this kind of fish? More solute molecules inside the fish’s cells than in the freshwater. (HYPOTONIC) Water will move INTO the fish

32 Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity? A. a greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids B. a greater proportion of saturated phospholipids C. a lower temperature D. a relatively high protein content in the membrane E. a greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids compared to lipids having smaller molecular masses Campbell Concept check A

33 Which organelle makes the ATP used to run the Na + - K + pump? mitochondria Type of endocytosis in which cells take in small molecules or fluids pinocytosis

34 The white circles stand for oxygen molecules. Use what you know about diffusion of molecules to predict which way the oxygen will move. Diffusion moves molecules from high concentration to low so… from the lungs into the blood

35 Based on the model of sucrose uptake in the figure below, which of the following experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell? A. decreasing extracellular sucrose concentration B. increasing extracellular pH C. decreasing cytoplasmic pH D. adding an inhibitor that block the regeneration of ATP E. adding a substance that make the membrane more permeable to hydrogen ions Campbell Concept check B

36 This type of transport which opens in response to a signal and forms a “tunnel” through the membrane to let ions in and out is called a(n) ___________________ Gated ion channel

37 Tell if the transport is ACTIVE or PASSIVE Facilitated diffusion ___________________ Osmosis ____________________ Na + - K + pump ____________________ Diffusion ____________________ Endocytosis _______________________ Exocytosis ________________________ Ion channels ________________________ Proton pumps ______________________ Aquaporins _____________________ PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE

38 Match the picture with the kind of transport FACILITATED DIFFUSION (carrier) DIFFUSION

39 Match the picture with the kind of transport EXOCYTOSIS INSIDE OUTSIDE CELL CELL Substance is put in a vesicle and transported up to the cell membrane and released OUTSIDE Name an organelle that uses this kind of transport Golgi Bodies

40 In what way do the various membranes of a eukaryotic cell differ? A. Phospholipids are found only in certain membranes B. Certain proteins are unique to each membrane C. Only certain membranes of the cell are selectively permeable. D. Only certain membranes are constructed from amphipathic molecules E. Some membranes have hydrophobic surfaces exposed to the cytoplasm; while others have hydrophilic surfaces facing the cytoplasm. Campbell Concept check B

41 This pump is the main electrogenic pump used in ______________ cells. plant animal Match the picture with the kind of transport Na + - K + pump Energy from ATP is used to move 3 Na + ions OUT of the cell and carry 2 K + ions INTO the cell animal

42 Which of the following processes includes all the others? A. osmosis B. diffusion of a solute across a membrane C. facilitated diffusion D. passive transport E. transport of an ion down its electrochemical gradient Campbell Concept check D; diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, ion channels are all kinds of passive transport

43 Match the picture with the kind of transport ENDOCYTOSIS Substance is transported INTO cell inside a vesicle If what is moving into the cell is a small molecules and fluids this would be called __________________ PINOCYTOSIS

44 LABEL THE TONICITY DIAGRAMS HYPERTONICHYPOTONIC ISOTONIC

45 Name the two types of transport proteins that carry out facilitated diffusion Which of these would increase membrane fluidity? a) greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids b) greater proportion of saturated phospholipids c) a lower temperature d) relatively high protein content in membrane e) greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids compared to lipids having smaller molecular masses Campbell Ch 7 self quiz Channels and carriers A

46 Diffusion is a spontaneous process in which molecules move _______ their concentration gradient. up down Aquaporins are ______________________ a) carrier proteins b) channel proteins c) active cotransporters d) ligands e) a kind of Na + -K + pump down Channel proteins for water molecules

47 Name the genetic disorder you learned about in BIO I in which there is a mutation in the protein that transports Cl - ions causing a build up of thick mucous in the lungs and digestive organs Cystic fibrosis Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006

48 Explain why plant cells don’t undergo cytolysis in hypotonic environments but animal cells do. Give an example of an amphipathic molecule. Method of splitting a cell membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer Cell wall is rigid and keeps them from bursting Phospholipids have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions; so do many proteins Freeze fracture

49 Name this cell model which proposed that membranes were “sandwiches” of phospholipids between two layers of hydrophilic proteins Davson-Danielli model

50 A mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their A. mass in daltons B. mass in grams C. number of molecules D. number of atoms E. volume Campbell Self quiz C. A mole of anything contains 6.02 X molecules. A _______________ molecule has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region. Cell membranes are called _____________________ because they allow certain substances to pass through, but keep others out. amphipathic Selectively or semi- permeable

51 The proton pump is the main electrogenic pump in ________________ cells. plant animal Membrane proteins that span the membrane touching both sides are called _________________ proteins Name the molecules which can be attached to proteins or lipids in cell membranes and are involved in cell recognition plant transmembrane carbohydrates

52 How would you make a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride? (The atomic mass of Na is 23 daltons and Cl is 35.5 daltons) Mass of 1 mole of NaCl = _______ daltons 58.5 g NaCl 0.5 moles = _______ g/L 1 mole 1 L 58.5 ( ) Dissolve g of NaCl in water to make 1 L of solution X Campbell Concept Check 3.2

53 How many grams of acetic acid (C 2 H 4 O 2 ) would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid? (The atomic masses in daltons are approximately 12 for C, 16 for O, and 1 for H) A g B. 0.1 g C. 6.0 g D g E. 0.6 g Mass of 1 mole of acetic acid C = 2 X 12 = 24 daltons H = 4 X 1 = 4 daltons O = 2 X 16 = 32 daltons 60 daltons Campbell Chapter Self Quiz 60.0 g of acetic acid and add water to make 10 L of solution (D is correct) 60.0 g X 0.1 moles = 6 g/L X 10 L = 60.0 g 1 mole 1 L

54 Which type of transport maintains the membrane potential in animal cells? Molecules that bind specifically to a receptor site on another molecule are called ____________ Name the transport process you learned about in which ligands are involved in the uptake of molecules Sodium-potassium pump ligands Receptor mediated endocytosis

55 Electrogenic pumps create voltage across cell membranes making the cytoplasm more _______________ than the extracellular fluid. negative positive The water potential ψ for pure water at atmospheric pressure is ______ The addition of solutes ___________ the water potential. increases decreases negative zero decreases

56 USE lower and higher to complete the following: Water always moves from an area with ________ water potential to an area with _______ water potential. Water with solutes dissolved in it will have a ______________ water potential than plain water. higher lower

57 According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly A. spread in a continuous layer over the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane B. confined to the hydrophobic core of the membrane C. embedded in a lipid bilayer D. randomly oriented in the membrane with not fixed inside-outside polarity E. free to depart from the fluid membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution Campbell Concept check C

58 An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution. The membrane is permeable to water and to the simple sugars glucose and fructose, but completely impermeable to the disachride sucrose. Which solute(s) will exhibit a net diffusion into the cell? Which solute(s) will exhibit a net diffusion out of the cell? Campbell Concept check fructose glucose

59 An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution. The membrane is permeable to water and to the simple sugars glucose and fructose, but completely impermeable to the disachride sucrose. Campbell Concept check Which solution-the cell or the environment- is hypertonic to the other? In which direction will there be a net osmotic movement of water? Cell (0.05 M) is hypertonic to the environment (0.03 M) Water will move into the cell

60 After the cell is placed in the beaker, which of the following changes will occur? A. The artificial cell will become more flaccid. B. The artificial cell will become more turgid. C. Some water molecules will flow out of the cell, but the majority will flow in. D. The membrane potential will decrease E. In spite of the inability of sucrose to cross the cell membrane, eventually the two solutions will become isotonic. Campbell Concept check B, C, E are correct


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