Presentation on theme: "Minerals. Humans cannot survive without minerals 16 minerals needed for humans to survive.03% of what we eat but we would not survive without the minerals."— Presentation transcript:
Humans cannot survive without minerals 16 minerals needed for humans to survive.03% of what we eat but we would not survive without the minerals Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, phosphorous
Minerals make-up many practical parts of our lives
Glass is made from 6 minerals Silica Limestone Magnesium Boric acid Soda Aluminum 40 billion glass containers/year in USA 35 % are recycled
Gold in California Discovered in the American River, 1848 Gold Rush Population of SF- 575 males,177 females, 60 children- March, ,000- December 1849 Chinese, Welsh, German, English, Mexican, Spanish and French Diversity of California
Salt Early people collected salt before they understood how important the mineral is for survival Mediterranean-salt cakes were used as money Greeks traded salt for slaves England flourished when fuel for boiling brine changed from wood to coal
Minerals are mined for our use Magmatic copper, magnetite, uranium
What is a mineral? Naturally occurring Inorganic Crystalline structure Halite, salt, sodium chloride
AtomsAtoms make-up minerals An atom is the smallest component of matter Each element is defined by the number of protons The atom must be electrically neutral The number of protons equals the number of electrons
Eight elements make-up 99% of the Earth’s crust Silicon and oxygen make-up 70 % of the Earth’s crust
Why do atoms combine to form minerals? Write the following questions and answer in your notes: Look at the salt with the hand lens What is the color? What is the shape of the crystals? Does the shape match the halite crystals? What is a distinguishing characteristic of salt?
Salt is also named Sodium Chloride Look at the periodic table: Write the chemical notation, atomic number and atomic weight for sodium and chlorine Now sketch an atom with the nucleus containing the correct number of protons and neutrons Sketch the electrons on the “rings” around the nucleus
Sodium chloride: sketch a diagram of the sodium and chlorine atoms
Why do sodium and chlorine combine to form salt? Explain why sodium and chlorine combine to form salt
The configuration of electrons determines if an atom will respond with another atom The sodium atom has one electron on its outer ring. The Chlorine atom has 7 electrons on its outer ring. The two atoms share electrons forming an ionic bond.
Atomic structure determines the mineral’s characteristics mineral’s Salt or halite always has a cubic form and tastes salty.
Cations and Anions The one electron on the outer shell is given up This leaves the sodium atom with more protons, +1 The one electron is added to Chlorines outer shell This leaves the chlorine atom with one more electron, -1 cation anion
Mineral Formation Cooling of magma: crystallization Evaporation: salt Hydrothermal
Silicate minerals are the building block of igneous rocks Mountains, British Columbia Granite: individual minerals make-up the rock
Minerals are the building block of rocks Feldspar crystal Biotitie Quartz Hornblende
Minerals can be identified by physical properties Crystal habit Cleavage Fracture Quartz has a conchoidal fractureMica has a single, perfect cleavage Equant garnet: same dimension in all directions
Color malachite sulfur apatite
Hardness How the mineral can be scratched Fingernail Penny File or knife
Streak Minerals leave a distinct residue on a porcelain plate
Luster Metallic or non-metallic
Classification of Minerals Composition Rock forming minerals contain silicon and oxygen The silicon tetrahedronsilicon
The arrangement of the silicon tetrahedron determines the mineral’s shape Biotite: sheet structure; breaks easily on one surface Olivine Hornblende: double chain
Mineral Classification: based on dominant element Pyrite: fool’s gold; FeS 2 Sulfides: contains the element sulfur Galena: PbS; important ore of lead
Carbonates: contains calcium carbonate; CaCO 3 Mineral Classification: based on dominant element Calcite: CaCo 3 Dolomite: CaMg(CO 3 )2
Summary Mineral definition How do minerals form? Read and understand information associated with the periodic table of the elements Be able to sketch a diagram of an atom: hydrogen, helium, carbon, sodium, chlorine How are minerals classified: rock forming minerals? Silicates, sulfides, carbonates Name and describe the physical characteristics to distinguish minerals.