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1 Excess Dietary Sodium: Impact on Hypertension and Health Outcomes Presenters name Institution Updated April 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Excess Dietary Sodium: Impact on Hypertension and Health Outcomes Presenters name Institution Updated April 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Excess Dietary Sodium: Impact on Hypertension and Health Outcomes Presenters name Institution Updated April 2011

2 2 Overview Hypertension : a leading risk factor for death and disability High sodium intake is an important determinant of hypertension and hypertension-related complications How much sodium do we need? A reduction in dietary sodium intake reduces blood pressure and reduces hypertension-related complications

3 2010 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendations 3 Hypertension is a significant risk factor for: cerebrovascular disease coronary artery disease congestive heart failure renal failure peripheral vascular disease dementia atrial fibrillation Hypertension as a Risk Factor

4 4 Leading causes of death, Canada, 2005, males and females combined 31% 30% 9% 5%

5 5 Organ damage related to hypertension Cerebrovascular disease - transient ischemic attacks - ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke - dementia Hypertensive retinopathy Left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy Coronary artery disease - myocardial infarction - angina pectoris - congestive heart failure Chronic kidney disease - hypertensive nephropathy GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) - albuminuria - ESRD/dialysis Peripheral artery disease - intermittent claudication -abdominal aortic aneurysm

6 6 Hypertension is prevalent and costly Million visits/year * Hypertension Depression Diabetes Routine medical exams Acute respiratory tract infection tract infection Source: IMS HEALTH Canada * Antihypertensives are one of the most expensive drug categories Reasons for visits to physicians in Canada

7 7 Risk factors for hypertension High dietary sodium intake Obesity High alcohol intake Sedentarity Smoking Inadequate vegetable and fruit intake Inadequate milk product intake

8 8 Systolic BP by deciles of 24hUVNa K. Stolarz-Skrzypek, European Project on Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH) Investigators – ESH 2010

9 9 High sodium intake increases risk of complications in hypertensive patients CHD Death CVD Death All Death Hazard Ratio High sodium intake Lower sodium intake He FJ, MacGregor GA. a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Implications for public health. J Hum Hypertens 2002;16: * p  * * *

10 10 In summary High dietary sodium intake has significant effects on blood pressure and on blood pressure-related complications Hypertension is a leading risk factor for death and disability Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor Hypertension is very prevalent and has a large impact on health care resource use

11 11 Dietary sodium intake for adults In Canada and the USA, mg/day (age dependant) is estimated to be adequate (Adequate Intake or AI) –2300 mg/day is above the upper limit recommended for health (upper limit; UL) Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) recommends: –Reduce sodium intake to less than 1500 mg both for the prevention and the treatment of hypertension Dietary Reference Intakes, IM 2003

12 2010 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendations 12 Recommendations for daily salt intake 2,300 mg sodium (Na) = 100 mmol sodium (Na) = 5.8 g of salt (NaCl) = 1 level teaspoon of table salt 80% of average sodium intake is in processed foods Only 10% is added at the table or in cooking AgeRecommended Intake and over1200 Institute of Medicine, 2003

13 13 Av. Sodium Intake* (mg/day) of Canadian Adults *Does not include sodium added at the table or during home cooking Ref: Canadian Community Health Survey, Nutrition Survey yr40-59 yr 60 yr + MenWomenM&W

14 14 Most of the sodium in our diet comes from processed food! 12% natural content of foods “Hidden“ sodium: 77% from processing of food -manufacturing and restaurants “Conscious“ sodium: 11% added at the table (5%) and in cooking (6%) J Am College of Nutrition 1991;10: % 12% 11%

15 15 Sources of sodium from "processed food“ in Canada % of all sodium intake Health Reports, Vol. 18, No 2, May 2007

16 16 Lower sodium reduces SBP Change in Urinary Sodium (mmol/24h) Change in Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) Normotensives Hypertensives He FJ, MacGregor GA. a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Implications for public health. J Hum Hyptens 2002;16: Meta-analysis Results:

17 2010 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendations 17 Sodium: Meta-analyses The Cochrane Library 2006;3:1-41 Average Reduction of sodium in mg/day 1800 mg/day 2300 mg/day Hypertensives Reduction of BP 5.1 / 2.7 mmHg 7.2/3.8 mmHg Average Reduction of sodium in mg/day 1700 mg/day 2300 mg/day Normotensives Reduction of BP 2.0 / 1.0 mmHg 3.6/1.7 mmHg

18 18 Health care cost savings in Canada by reducing dietary sodium Using the Cochrane review data: a reduction in average dietary sodium intake by 1800 mg/d (from 3500 mg to 1700 mg in Can.) would result in: –1 million fewer hypertensive Canadians –Almost double the BP treatment and control rate –Hypertension care cost savings of $430 to 538 million /yr Can J Cardiol 2007;23:

19 19 Impact of reducing BP through dietary sodium in Canada Modelling Results: Annual Reduction in incidence of –Myocardial infarction (5%) –Strokes (13%) –Heart Failure (17%) Reduction in health care costs associated with the overall predicted 8.6% reduction CVD –$1.7 billion per year (1998 costs) Can J Cardiol. 2008;24:

20 20 Observed effect of lower sodium intake on cardiovascular events in Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP trials) 25-30% lower risk of cardiovascular events in those who had been in the low sodium groups (pre-hypertensive patients) mg/day reduction in dietary sodium during intervention BMJ 2007;334:885-92

21 21 Success stories for reducing dietary sodium Finland (1970) UK (1996) –Food Standard Agency –CASH – Consensus action on salt and health WASH (2005) –World Action on Salt and Health

22 22 Changes in DBP, sodium intake and stroke deaths in Finland 5600 mg 3360 mg DBP Sodium Stroke Karppanen H et al Progress, Cardiovascular Disease 2006;49: mg 3360 mg

23 23 Global initiatives  Success of World Action on Salt and Health (WASH) raising public, political and manufacturers’ awareness.  WHO’s statement on “Reducing salt intake in populations”.  Major global food and beverage manufacturers agreed to cut salt in their foods products.  World Hypertension Day Theme: “Salt and Hypertension” – a massive global public health campaign to reduce dietary salt through a variety of initiatives including food sector and other stakeholders’ participation.

24 24 In summary Lower sodium consumption decreases blood pressure Lower sodium consumption decreases hypertension-related complication rates

25 25 Key messages Sodium is an important contributor to high blood pressure Reducing sodium reduces blood pressure and prevents cardiovascular disease Canadian sodium intake is higher than the recommended levels for health Policies to reduce population sodium intake can be effective

26 26 Where can I get resources? Hypertension website Dial a dietitian Dietitians of Canada Consensus Action on Salt & Health (CASH) World Action on Salt &Health (WASH) World Health Organization (WHO)

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