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Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine Chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine Chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine Chemical Nomenclature Printable summary of nomenclature Flow chart El mundo era tan reciente, que muchas cosas carecían de nombre, y para mencionarlas había que señalarlas con el dedo. - G. García Márquez, Cien años de soledad double-click to open attachments In Chem 110 and 111, you are asked to learn the names of a selection of simple but common compounds without which it’s pretty hard to carry on a conversation about chemistry. Nomenclature will account for about 10% of your grade in 111! Use my table of polyatomic ions instead of Tables 6-3, 6-5 and 6-6. Do not memorize Table 6-4.

2 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine You should already have memorized the names and symbols of these common elements! The significance of the blue elements is that they have more than one common oxidation number. ELEMENTS: symbols

3 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine ELEMENTS: diatomics and allotropes Diatomic molecules are the most stable form for H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2. (blue shading below) –You must know these to correctly write and balance chemical equations in the next chapter. Sometimes allotropes (alternate forms of the pure element) exist: oxygen: O 2 ozone O 3 carbon: graphite, diamond

4 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS Binary = only 2 different elements present Cation: retains name of element Anion: suffix -ide oxide O  2 fluoride F  NaCl = sodium chloride CaS = calcium sulfide AlF 3 = aluminum fluoride Metal + nonmetal

5 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS: formula from name To write the correct formula from the name, you have to know the charges of the ions (chapter 5) The charges in the formula must add up to zero. –shortcut: write the charges and swap them down (without signs): Charges must not appear in the finished formula! –WRONG: Al 2 +3 O Right: Al 2 O 3 Simplest formula must be given (ionic compounds only) –WRONG: Ca 2 O 2 Right: CaO Ca +2 F -1 yields CaF Al +3 O -2 yields Al 2 O 3 2 3

6 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine POLYATOMIC IONS Polyatomic ions are charged molecules held together by covalent bonds –They stay in one piece and behave as a single ion in many reactions –They are very common, so you must know their names! –Memorize name, formula and charge :O: :O - N=O: : : : : Lewis structure of nitrate, a polyatomic ion (charged molecule)

7 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine cation: ammonium NH ides: hydroxide OH  1 cyanide CN  1 -ates: acetate C 2 H 3 O 2  1 carbonate CO 3  2 phosphate PO 4  3 chromate CrO 4  2 dichromate Cr 2 O 7  2 permanganate MnO 4 -1 nitrate NO 3  1 sulfate SO 4  2 chlorate ClO 3  1 -ites: nitrite NO 2  1 sulfite SO 3  2 POLYATOMIC IONS to be memorized

8 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine The name of the polyatomic ion is retained in the name of the compound. Examples: Na 2 CO 3 sodium carbonate NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 ammonium acetate Practice: write the formula or name: sodium hydroxideNa 2 SO 4 ammonium nitrateNa 2 Cr 2 O 7 potassium phosphateAgCN Formulas: NaOH, NH 4 NO 3, K 3 PO 4 Names: sodium sulfate, sodium dichromate, silver cyanide POLYATOMIC IONS: naming compounds

9 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine POLYATOMIC IONS: anions containing H (acid salts) Some anions add H + to form hydrogen ___ ion. Examples: PO 4  3 phosphate HPO 4  2 hydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4  1 dihydrogen phosphate HS -1 hydrogen sulfide HSO 3  1 hydrogen sulfite HSO 4  1 hydrogen sulfate HCO 3  1 hydrogen carbonate (a.k.a. bicarbonate) Examples NaHSO 4 sodium hydrogen sulfate KH 2 PO 4 potassium dihydrogen phosphate NaHCO 3 sodium hydrogen carbonate (a.k.a. sodium bicarbonate)

10 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine CHARGES of ions Many elements always form ions with a certain charge. You should know these: Group 1 form +1 ions Group 2 form +2 ions Group 3 form +3 ions Group 16 form -2 ions Group 17 form -1 ions Ag +1 Zn and Cd +2 Cu +1 and +2 Pb and Sn +2 and +4 Fe +2 and +3 predictable from periodic table: no need to memorize these are so common that you should memorize them

11 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine VARIABLE OXIDATION NUMBERS Most transition elements and some representative elements are capable of forming ions with several possible oxidation numbers. These are indicated in blue on the periodic table, page 2. For these elements, a Roman numeral is required to specify the oxidation number of the cation. iron (II) = Fe +2, FeCl 2 = iron (II) chloride iron (III) = Fe +3, FeCl 3 = iron (III) chloride More examples chromium(III) oxide, copper(I) oxide, copper(II) oxide, tin(IV) oxide Elements that form only 1 cation must not be identified with a Roman numeral. sodium oxide, magnesium oxide

12 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine When given a formula to name, you must decide if the metal is one of the variable ones. If it is, then you must determine its oxidation number to name it properly. Examples –Cr 2 O 3 Cr is a transition metal; oxidation number is 3 Chromium (III) oxide –Al(NO 3 ) 3 Al only forms +3 ions: no Roman numeral is needed Aluminum nitrate [aluminum (III) nitrate is WRONG] –PbSO 4 Pb is known to have variable oxidation number. Since sulfate has a charge of -2, Pb must have a charge of +2 in this compound. Lead (II) sulfate VARIABLE-CHARGE METALS: name from formula

13 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine BINARY MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS use prefixes mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa... CO carbon monoxideCO 2 carbon dioxide N 2 O dinitrogen monoxideP 2 O 5 diphosphorus pentoxide ICl iodine monochlorideGeO 2 germanium dioxide Note that “mono” is required for the second atom, but is dropped for the first. A few important compounds have common names. MEMORIZE: NH 3 = ammonia H 2 O = water H 2 O 2 = hydrogen peroxide Two nonmetals in the formula and no charge

14 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine BINARY MOLECULAR or IONIC? If the compound contains a metal, it is named according to the rules for ionic compounds If the compound contains 2 nonmetals, then it must be named using numeric prefixes. N 2 O 3 dinitrogen trioxide NOT nitrogen (III) oxide Fe 2 O 3 iron (III) oxide NOT diiron trioxide PbO 2 lead (IV) oxide CO 2 carbon dioxide AlF 3 aluminum fluoride NOT aluminum trifluoride NF 3 nitrogen trifluoride CaOcalcium oxide NOT calcium monoxide NOnitrogen monoxide

15 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine BINARY MOLECULAR COMPOUND or ion? If a charge is written ( NO 2 – ) or implied (NaNO 2 ) then you must use the polyatomic ion name. If there is no charge, ( NO 2 ) then the compound should be named as a binary nonmetal compound. NO 2 – nitriteNO 2 nitrogen dioxide SO 3 –2 sulfiteSO 3 sulfur trioxide ClO 2 – chloriteClO 2 chlorine dioxide

16 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine ACIDS Common acids you should know: HF hydrofluoric acid HCl hydrochloric acid HNO 3 nitric acid HNO 2 nitrous acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 acetic acid Formula starts with H

17 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine ACIDS (2) Start from the name of the anion Slight spelling variations are found in the cases of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid Polyatomic anion: -ate becomes -ic acid, -ite becomes -ous acid HNO 3 : nitrate  nitric acid HNO 2 : nitrite  nitrous acid Binary: drop -ide and add hydro___ic acid HCl: chloride  hydrochloric acid HI: iodide  hydroiodic acid For this class, it is sufficient to memorize the acid names and formulas on the previous page. For your edification, here are name-formation rules :

18 Cl 2 ClO 2 NaCl ClO 2 - NaClO 2 HClO 2 FeClO 2 iron (II) chlorite chlorous acid sodium chlorite chlorite sodium chloride chlorine dioxide chlorine ACIDS (3) HF, HCl, HBr, HI are named as acids only when dissolved in water Indicated by (aq) –HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid –HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride (gas--not dissolved in water) Both H 2 S(g) and H 2 S(aq) are usually called hydrogen sulfide The rest are always named as acids: HNO 3 nitric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 acetic acid etc. These are never called hydrogen ___ate.


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