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Chloride & Sodium Concentrations. A Bit Smaller… Superior82,414 km 2 Michigan22,400 km 2 Huron23,010 km 2 Erie9,930 km 2 Ontario7,520 km 2 Conesus14 km.

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Presentation on theme: "Chloride & Sodium Concentrations. A Bit Smaller… Superior82,414 km 2 Michigan22,400 km 2 Huron23,010 km 2 Erie9,930 km 2 Ontario7,520 km 2 Conesus14 km."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chloride & Sodium Concentrations

2 A Bit Smaller… Superior82,414 km 2 Michigan22,400 km 2 Huron23,010 km 2 Erie9,930 km 2 Ontario7,520 km 2 Conesus14 km 2 Hemlock7 km 2 Canadice3 km 2 Honeoye7 km 2 Canandaigua42 km 2 Keuka47 km 2 Seneca175 km 2 Cayuga172 km 2 Owasco27 km 2 Skaneateles36 km 2 Otisco8 km 2

3 Seneca Lake Watershed: Land Use, Subwatersheds & Bedrock Geology

4 Source Chloride & Sodium Ions Cathy Caiazza (WS’05) Duke U. PhD Program Seneca Lake

5 Source Chloride & Sodium Ions Timothy Riley (H’01) SUNY-ESF, Masters Science

6 Source Salts: Sodium Ions: Mass balance data Seneca Lake 80 ppm (~1.2 million tons) Streams 20 ppm 15,000 mt/yr Road Salt Outlet 80 ppm 60,000 mt/yr Evaporation ~0 ppm Concentrates Ions in Lake Rain ~0 ppm Dilutes Ions in Lake Industry? Groundwater / Rock Salt Bedrock? 40 to 45,000 mt/yr Sodium Industry? Groundwater / Rock Salt Bedrock? 40 to 45,000 mt/yr Sodium (~450 railroad cars) plus 60 to 70,000 mt/yr Chloride (+680 railroad cars)

7 Finger Lake Bedrock

8 Basin Depths

9 Source Chloride & Sodium Ions Sediment Pore Waters Bedrock X-Section NorthSouth Lake ~5 mMol Rock Salt Rob Stewart, (H’03) Environmental Consulting

10 Is Seneca Lake too Salty to Drink?

11 An Evolving Story… Additional Data? Jolly, 2005, USGS Sukeforth, 2006, HWS Road Salt Road Salt and ??

12 Salinity’s Recent Decline 2010 CTD Data April CTD Data

13 Modeling the Chloride Trends

14 US Salt & Cargill Salt, Solution Mines Watkins Glen Gas Storage?


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